Category History Timelines

Catherine Howard
History Timelines

Catherine Howard

Catherine Howard was born into one of the most famous of noble families - Catherine's father was the younger brother of the Duke of Norfolk. Catherine became Henry VIII's fifth wife. She was Anne Boleyn's cousin and in the social circle in which she lived, it would have been expected that she would have been seen by Henry, who after the divorce from Anne of Cleves, was once again looking for a wife.

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Foreign Policy 1553 to 1558

The foreign policy of Mary I, Mary Tudor, followed an expected pattern. Even before being crowned queen, Mary was known to be supportive of the Holy Roman Emperor and of the Habsburg family. Mary was a fervent Catholic, which further pusher her into the Emperor's camp as he had expressed his anger at the way the Church of England was becoming Protestant under Edward VI.
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John Whitgift

John Whitgift was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1583 by Elizabeth I. She knew that Whitgift was anti-Puritans and that he would spearhead a royal desire for religious conformity in England and Wales. In this task, John Whitgift was not to disappoint. Whitgift was born around 1530. He was the son of a wealthy merchant.
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Queen Elizabeth's Tilbury speech

Made on the eve of the Spanish Armada in 1588 “My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that we are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but, I do assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself, that under God I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and goodwill of my subjects; and, therefore, I am come amongst you as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of battle, to live or die amongst you all - to lay down for my God, and for my kingdoms, and for my people, my honour and my blood even in the dust.
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Tudor London

Tudor London was the largest city in Western Europe during the time of the Tudor monarchs. The London of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I was dirty and potentially dangerous, but it still acted like a magnet attracting many people to it who wanted to find their fame and especially their fortune there. London was a city of great contrasts.
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Tudor Medicine

Tudor medicine had not advanced massively from the times of Medieval England. It is thought that only about 10% of all Tudors lived to be beyond their 40 th birthday - and one of the reasons, among many, was the poor standard of Tudor medicine and medical knowledge. In the countryside, villagers frequently relied on herbal treatments for illnesses - or 'old wives tales'.
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Theatres in Tudor England

The growth of theatres in Tudor England, and especially in the reign of Elizabeth, is very much associated with this era. Along with sports and pastimes, theatres provided the workers with some form of break from work. Plays, as we would recognise them, first started in the Middle Ages when priests would use their services to put on a play to show a story from the Bible.
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James I and Crown Land

James I was not the first English monarch to experience financial trouble. Chief Minister Robert Cecil, the Earl of Salisbury, used numerous methods to bail out James who was a king who had little understanding of finance. Farming out custom dues and impositions were both used. Though they were successful in terms of the amount they raised for James, they both did not do a great deal to decrease the most pressing of James's needs - reducing his overall royal debt.
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James and the Church

The Church played a much larger part in the lives of all people in the C17th than it does today. “The thinking of all English people was dominated by the Church.” (C Hill) Why did the era from 1603 to 1640 witness a challenge to the power and to the very existence of the Established Church? The early C17th saw intellectuals questioning what was perceived as being the 'norm'.
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Richard Bancroft

Richard Bancroft was the man trusted by James I to argue on behalf of the government religious matters that occurred during his reign. Bancroft was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1604 until his death in 1610. Bancroft believed that Puritanism had the potential to socially and politically destabilise the country - hence his repression of it.
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Robert Keyes

Robert Keyes was a conspirator in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot - an attempt to kill James I and as many in Parliament as was possible. Robert Keyes was caught and after a brief trial was sentenced to death. Robert Keyes was born around 1565. He did not have the background of the likes of the Wrights, Catesby, and Rookwood etc.
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Christopher Wright

Christopher ('Kit') was one of the conspirators in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot -the plot to kill James I and members of Parliament. Christopher was 'luckier' than some of the potters - he was shot of November 8 th and escaped the butchery of being hung, drawn and quartered. Christopher Wright was born in 1570.
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Battles of the English Civil War

The English Civil War is remembered most for three major battles - the Battle of Edgehill, the Battle of Marston Moor and the Battle of Naseby. However, a large number of other battles occurred that are frequently overlooked. 1642 September 23 rd : Battle of Powick Bridge. October 23 rd : Battle of Edgehill 1643 January 19 th : the Battle of Braddock Down March 19 th : the Battle of Hopton Heath March 30 th : Battle of Seacroft Moor April 13 th : Battle of Ripple Field April 25 th : Battle of Sourton Down May 16 th : Battle of Stratton June 30 th : Battle of Adwalton Moor July 5 th : Battle of Roundway Down September 20 th : First Battle of Newbury 1644 January 25 th : Battle of Nantwich March 29 th : Battle of Cheriton June 29 th : Battle of Cropredy Bridge July 2 nd : Battle of Marston Moor August 21 st : Battle of Beacon Hill August 31 st : Battle of Castle Dore September 1 st : Battle of Tippermuir September 13 th : Battle of Aberdeen October 27 th : Second Battle of Newbury 1645 May 9 th : Battle of Auldearn June 14 th : Battle of Naseby July 2 nd : Battle of Alford July 10 th : Battle of Langport August 15 th : Battle of Kilsyth September 13 th : Battle of Philiphaugh September 24 th : Battle of Rowton Heath 1646 February 16 th : Battle of Torrington May 5 th : Charles surrendered to the Scots 1648 August 17th: Battle of Preston (lasted until August 19th) Related Posts Battle of Britain Battle of Britain German planes in the Battle of Britain
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Lord Monteagle

William Parker, Lord Monteagle, is very much linked to the 1605 Gunpowder Plot. It was Lord Monteagle who mysteriously received a letter that clearly warned Monteagle not to attend Parliament on the day James I was due to open Parliament for its new session. Monteagle was born in 1575. In 1589, as plain William Parker, he married Elizabeth Tresham, the sister of Francis Tresham - one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot.
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The Hampton Court Conference

The Hampton Court Conference took place in January 1604. The conference was in response to the Millenary Petition so that the issues raised by it could be discussed in a formal setting. Many of the signatories of the Millenary Petition were very well aware that James I had a passion for philosophical and ideological debate and he rose to their challenge by calling the Hampton Court Conference.
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English Civil War Glossary

The English Civil War witnessed new or modernised weapons in the battles fought in it especially in the later ones. These new weapons brought in new terms/words and some such as fusil have continued into later military terminology with fusilier. Basilisk: an artillery piece that fired a shot of about thirty pounds in weight.
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Archbishop William Laud

Archbishop William Laud was one of the senior advisors to Charles I. William Laud was a loyal supporter of the king but Laud was to pay for this loyalty with his life. William Laud was born in 1573 in Reading, Berkshire. His father was a wealthy clothing merchant. Laud was educated at Reading Grammar School and St.
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The Trial and Execution of Charles I

Charles I was the first of our monarchs to be put on trial for treason and it led to his execution. This event is one of the most famous in Stuart England's history - and one of the most controversial. No law could be found in all England's history that dealt with the trial of a monarch so the order setting up the court that was to try Charles was written by a Dutch lawyer called Issac Dorislaus and he based his work on an ancient Roman law which stated that a military body (in this case the government) could legally overthrow a tyrant.
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The Battle of Naseby

The Battle of Naseby was probably the pivotal moment during the English Civil War. The Battle of Naseby was fought on June 14 th 1645 and prior to the battle there was no obvious indication that either Parliament, with Oliver Cromwell highly influential, nor the Royalists had any obvious military advantage over the other.
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Agreement of the People

The 'Agreement of the People' was written by John Wildman, a leading Leveller. By the standards of the day, 'Agreement of the People' was very radical and it was rejected by Parliament. If its proposals had been introduced, 'Agreement of the People' would have democratised England and Wales to a very great extent but more so than Parliament was willing to allow.
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The First Battle of Newbury

The first battle of Newbury took place September 20 th 1643. The battle was a direct result of the siege of Gloucester by Charles I. Though many miles apart, it was the march by the Earl of Essex to Gloucester and his subsequent return to London that brought him into conflict with Royalist forces at Newbury.
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