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March 8, 2013 Day 48 of the Fifth Year - History

March 8, 2013 Day 48 of the Fifth Year - History

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Bo, President Barack Obama applauds as Vice President Joe Biden shakes hands with CIA Director John Brennan following a swearing-in ceremony in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, March 8, 2013.

9:30AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing Oval Office  
10:00AM THE PRESIDENT meets with senior advisors Oval Office  

11:15AM THE PRESIDENT meets with faith leaders to discuss the need for commonsense immigration reform Roosevelt Room


Samhain is a pagan religious festival originating from an ancient Celtic spiritual tradition. In modern times, Samhain (a Gaelic word pronounced “SAH-win”) is usually celebrated from October 31 to November 1 to welcome in the harvest and usher in “the dark half of the year.” Celebrants believe that the barriers between the physical world and the spirit world break down during Samhain, allowing more interaction between humans and denizens of the Otherworld.

BigTime Literacy

Day 3: The Reading-Writing Connection
After students sort the words again, day 3 is when the word study goes even more authentic. This is a non-negotiable part of word study - kids have to find vocabulary in context.

Students may look for words that are in their sort or that fit the patterns in their sort in their Just Right books, in poems that the teacher shares with them, in leveled readers. whatever authentic reading materials they happen to be working with. They are essentially becoming word detectives - looking for new words and adding them to the lists they already have.

Be prepared though: They will find the "Oddballs." Oddballs are the words that should following a pattern (either for how it sounds or how it looks) but don't. Don't hide the oddballs. Use these words - talk about them, and then just have the kids file the words in an oddball category.

Day 4: Blind Sort and/or Games
On day 4, kids will do a Blind Written Sort with a partner. With this exercise, child A has the words in front of them and child B has a notebook and pencil. Child A reads the words to Child B, who writes them in their notebook with the correct pattern. The purpose here is that you'll want the kids to have the words in their vocabulary so much that they don't need the visual cue. When the words from their list are done being read and written, Child A checks the work from Child B and then they switch.

PS - One more (HUGE) thing that I didn't mention. Not sure what sorts to do? You can buy these books and it's all done for you - sequenced in a great order, building on one another. etc. Although only four are pictured here, there are five - one for each of the five stages: Emergent (kinder), Letter Name (first), Within Word (first-second), Syllables and Affixes (third-fourth), and Derivational Relations (fifth and up).

Emerson teachers: I have the original text of Words Their Way and I have the third, fourth, and fifth stages of word sorts. We will be ordering the others, just don't have them yet.

The Chartist story

Feargus O'Connor: 'The Lion of Freedom' © In the lead up to the events of 1848, the People's Charter was published - in May 1838 - as a draft parliamentary bill. It contained six points: manhood suffrage the ballot abolition of property qualifications for MPs payment of MPs equal electoral districts and annual elections. Thousands of working people had rallied together on the basis of this charter, and hundreds of them had gone to prison for their beliefs.

William Lovett was instrumental in drawing up this new document of long-established radical demands. He had been an active metropolitan radical at the time of the Reform Bill crisis of 1831-2, when the middle class but not the working class had been admitted into the parliamentary system. This was seen as a betrayal of a large section of society, and created some of the resentment that led to Chartism.

The draconian New Poor Law of 1834 amounted to an attack on the working class, and helped this new movement of protest to gain massive support in the north of England. There were other injustices, including the treatment of trade unionists, to fuel the fires that turned people into Chartists.

The draconian New Poor Law of 1834 amounted to an attack on the working class.

The origins of Chartism were complex. For Lovett, peaceful persuasion by respectable working men - 'moral force' - was the best way to win the Charter. This strategy clashed with that of Feargus O'Connor. Self confident and energetic, O'Connor was a charismatic demagogue, who used mass meetings and the widely read 'Northern Star' to unite the forces of the working class behind him. His popularity was immense the Chartists named their children after him and he himself was known as the 'Lion of Freedom'.

O'Connor may have implied support for 'physical force', but only a very small number of Chartists were genuine insurrectionists. John Frost was transported after leading a rising in Newport, in November 1839, in which 22 Chartists were shot dead by soldiers Robert Peddie was sentenced to three years with hard labour after his involvement in an attempted Chartist rising in Bradford in January 1840.

Fight by fight: Muhammad Ali's legendary career

By the end of Muhammad Ali's legendary boxing career, he had become the first three-time heavyweight champion. See his most iconic moments from inside the ring.

Muhammad Ali, then known as Cassius Clay, celebrates after winning the heavyweight championship with a knockout of Sonny Liston in the seventh round on Feb. 25, 1964, in Miami Beach, Fla. (Photo: AP)

A fight-by-fight breakdown of the boxing career of the legendary Muhammad Ali.

1. Oct. 29, 1960 (1-0)

Opponent: Tunney Hunsaker (15-9-1)

Site: Freedom Hall State Fairground, Louisville

Weight: 192 pounds

The skinny: Hunsaker was the police chief of Fayetteville, W.Va., when he fought Cassius Clay, who won a six-round unanimous decision. Hunsaker’s eyes were swollen shut by the end of the fight, and afterward he said, “Clay was as fast as lightning. I tried every trick I knew to throw at him off balance, but he was just too good.” In his autobiography, Ali said Hunsaker dealt him one of the hardest body blows he ever took during his career. Ali and Hunsaker became good friends and stayed in touch through the years. Hunsaker said he did not agree with Ali’s decision to refuse military service, but he praised him as a great humanitarian and athlete.

Boxing legend Muhammad Ali dies at 74

Appreciation: Muhammad Ali was a champion in and out of the boxing ring

2. Dec. 27, 1960 (2-0)

Opponent: Herb Siler (1-1)

Site: Miami Beach (Fla.) Auditorium

Weight: 193 pounds

The skinny: Siler became Clay’s first knockout victim, going down in the fourth round of a scheduled eight-round fight. Twelve years later, Siler was convicted of manslaughter and served a seven-year prison sentence. He died in 2001 in Miami.

3. Jan. 17, 1961 (3-0)

Opponent: Tony Esperti (9-6-2)

Site: Miami Beach Auditorium

Weight: 195 pounds

The skinny: On his 19th birthday, Clay knocked out Esperti in the third round of a scheduled eight-round fight. Esperti, nicknamed “Big Tony,” was an infamous character around Miami Beach. When his boxing career ended, Esperti found himself in trouble often. According to TheMiami Herald in 1967, Esperti was arrested 11 times for assault and battery, and each time the victims declined to press charges. On Oct. 31, 1967, at a restaurant in North Bay Village, Fla., Esperti was arrested for allegedly gunning down Thomas “The Enforcer” Altamura, a reputed mobster. According to newspaper reports, Altamura was waiting to be seated at the restaurant when Esperti allegedly walked up and shot him to death. Esperti died in 2002 at the age of 72.

4. Feb. 7, 1961 (4-0)

Opponent: Jimmy Robinson (1-2-0)

Site: Miami Beach Convention Hall

Weight: 193.5 pounds

The skinny: Clay was supposed to fight Willie Guelat on the undercard of the light-heavyweight title fight between Harold Johnson and Jesse Bowdry, but Guelat failed to show up. Clay knocked out Guelat’s replacement, Robinson, in 94 seconds.

5. Feb. 21, 1961 (5-0)

Opponent: Donnie Fleeman (35-11-1)

Site: Miami Beach Auditorium

Weight: 190 pounds

The skinny: Clay won by technical knockout in the seventh round of a scheduled eight-round fight. Fleeman, Clay’s first true opponent, was a tough Texan, but he couldn’t cope with Clay’s speed. Fleeman plodded forward, and Clay picked him off at will. The fight took seven rounds mainly because Clay decided that seven was enough. Fleeman, 28, retired after the fight.

30 of Muhammad Ali's best quotes

6. April 19, 1961 (6-0)

Opponent: LaMar Clark (44-2)

Site: Freedom Hall State Fairground, Louisville

Weight: 192.5 pounds

The skinny: Clay knocked out Clark, a former chicken farmer from Utah who had won 44

consecutive fights by KO, in the second round of a scheduled 10-round fight. Clay destroyed Clark, breaking his nose in the process. Clark, 27, retired after the fight.

7. June 26, 1961 (7-0)

Opponent: Kolo “Duke” Sabedong (15-11-1)

Site: Las Vegas Convention Center

Weight: 194.5 pounds

The skinny: Clay, fighting for the first time in Las Vegas, the new mecca of boxing, won a 10-round unanimous decision against Sabedong, a strapping 6-6 Hawaiian. Sabedong, 31, started out fighting dirty and hit Clay below the belt to try to provoke an upset. But he lacked the speed and skill to bother Clay, who blamed his sluggish showing on trainer Angelo Dundee’s decision to fly them to Las Vegas rather than take the train. Sabedong died in 2008 at the age of 78.

8. July 22, 1961 (8-0)

Opponent: Alonzo Johnson (18-7)

Site: Freedom Hall State Fairground, Louisville

Weight: 192.5 pounds

The skinny: Johnson was the first nationally ranked fighter to get in the ring with Clay. He was a seasoned veteran but had no real punching power. Johnson gave Clay a tough fight on a sweltering summer night. The bout went the distance, with Clay winning a unanimous decision. One judge, however, scored it 48-47 for Clay, who was booed by the hometown fans for the first time for his less-than-inspired performance.

9. Oct. 7, 1961 (9-0)

Opponent: Alex Miteff (25-10-1)

Site: Freedom Hall State Fairground, Louisville

Weight: 188 pounds

The skinny: Miteff, a 26-year-old from Argentina, was a promising heavyweight contender known for his body attacks, but he was no match for Clay. The “Louisville Lip” must have taken to heart the booing from his previous fight because he brutally pounded Miteff, knocking him out in the sixth round. Miteff retired after losing his next fight. He tried to come back five years later but retired for good after being KO’d by Jerry Quarry in the third round in April 1967. Miteff had a small part in the movie Requiem for a Heavyweight, which starred Anthony Quinn and Jackie Gleason.

10. Nov. 29, 1961 (10-0)

Opponent: Willi Besmanoff (44-27-7)

Site: Freedom Hall State Fairground, Louisville

Weight: 193 pounds

The skinny: Besmanoff, 29, was a German who had fought the likes of Sonny Liston, George Chuvalo, Zora Folley and Archie Moore before Clay. Before the fight, Clay told a TV interviewer, “I’m embarrassed to get in the ring with this unrated duck. I’m ready for top contenders like Floyd Patterson and Sonny Liston. Besmanoff must fall in seven!” Besmanoff was insulted and came right out after Clay. But Clay toyed with him for six rounds, then KO’d him in the seventh, determined to make good on his prediction.

11. Feb. 10, 1962 (11-0)

Opponent: Sonny Banks (10-2)

Site: Madison Square Garden, New York

Weight: 194.5 pounds

The skinny: This was Clay’s first fight at Madison Square Garden. Before the fight, Clay said, “The man must fall in the round I call. In fact, Banks must fall in four.” But Banks, 21, became the first to put Clay on the canvas when he knocked him down in the first round. Banks went down in Round 2, then took a beating from Clay before the fight was stopped early in the fourth round. Three years later, Banks died from injuries suffered in a nine-round bout vs. Leotis Martin.

12. March 28, 1962 (12-0)

Opponent: Don Warner (12-6-2)

Site: Miami Beach Convention Hall

Weight: 195 pounds

The skinny: Warner was a two-handed puncher who had a good record of wins inside the distance. “He was a tough left-hooker from Philadelphia,” said Dundee, Ali’s trainer. Clay said Warner, 22, would go down in the fifth round. But he sent a bloodied Warner through the ropes in Round 4. Asked why he had taken Warner in the fourth when he had predicted the fifth, Clay said he had to deduct a round because Warner neglected to shake hands at the weigh-in.

13. April 23, 1962 (13-0)

Opponent: George Logan (22-7-1)

Site: Los Angeles Sports Arena

Weight: 196.5 pounds

The skinny: Logan threw a lot of left hooks, most of which missed, while Clay’s quick hands opened cuts over Logan’s eyes. The referee stopped it in the fourth round. But more significant for Clay was his chance meeting with budding photojournalist Howard Bingham, and the two formed a lifelong friendship.

14. May 19, 1962 (14-0)

Opponent: Billy Daniels (16-0)

Site: St. Nicholas Arena, New York

Weight: 196 pounds

The skinny: Daniels, from New York, was 6-4 and an Air Force veteran. He was a good boxer with decent punching power and came into the fight undefeated and rated 10th in the world heavyweight rankings by Ring Magazine. He was featured on the cover with Clay as two young unbeaten contenders. Daniels was cut in the second round, and that caused the fight to be stopped in the seventh.

15. July 20, 1962 (15-0)

Opponent: Alejandro Lavorante (19-3)

Site: Los Angeles Sports Arena

Weight: 199 pounds

The skinny: Lavorante was another Argentine fighter who was discovered by Jack Dempsey. He was Hollywood handsome with a great knockout punch. But Clay knocked out Lavorante in the fifth round. In his next fight two months later vs. John Riggins (not the football player), Lavorante was KO’d in the sixth round, fell into a coma and died from his injuries 19 months later at age 27.

16. Nov. 15, 1962 (16-0)

Opponent: Archie Moore (184-22-11)

Site: Los Angeles Sports Arena

Weight: 204 pounds

The skinny: Moore was one of the greatest light heavyweights and most prolific fighters of all time (219 professional fights). But he was 45 when he fought Clay. Clay knocked him down three times in the fourth round and won by TKO in the fourth. Moore’s next fight was his last, and it was against wrestler Mike DiBiase in Phoenix. Moore beat up on DiBiase and won by TKO in the third round, ending his 27-year career with a victory.

17. Jan. 24, 1963 (17-0)

Opponent: Charley Powell (23-6-3)

Site: Civic Arena, Pittsburgh

Weight: 205 pounds

The skinny: Powell was a former pro football player and the brother of American Football League receiving great Art Powell. Charley Powell was bigger than Clay and not intimidated by him. Powell started strong and caught Clay with a few body punches, but he soon realized the deceptiveness of Clay’s strength. Clay KO’d Powell at the end of Round 3, again finishing an opponent in the round he had predicted. At this point, Clay had predicted knockouts in 13 of his 14 KO victories.

18. March 13, 1963 (18-0)

Opponent: Doug Jones (21-3-1)

Site: Madison Square Garden, New York

Weight: 202.5 pounds

The skinny: Before a sold-out Garden crowd (the first sellout there since Rocky Marciano vs. Joe Louis in 1951), Jones hurt Clay early and often, staggering him in the first round. By the middle rounds, Clay, realizing he was in a real fight, started using his powerful jab. While the ringside judges gave Clay a narrow victory, the crowd thought Jones had won and booed Clay unmercifully. The disputed bout was named Fight of the Year for 1963 by Ring Magazine.

19. June 18, 1963 (19-0)

Opponent: Henry Cooper (27-8-1)

Site: Wembley Stadium, London

Weight: 207 pounds

The skinny: Cooper, 29, was a top fighter in Europe and had a powerful left hook. But he was a big underdog against young and brash Clay and was outweighed by 21 pounds. Cooper came out strong and bloodied Clay’s nose in the first round. But by the third round, Clay had opened a bad gash over Cooper’s left eye. Instead of finishing him, though, Clay danced around and taunted Cooper. Late in the fourth round, Cooper connected with a left hook that floored and hurt Clay. He got up as the round ended. Clay then opened the gash further in the fifth round, and the fight was stopped. Clay’s fifth-round KO prediction came true.

20. Feb. 25, 1964 (20-0)

Opponent: Sonny Liston (35-1)

Site: Miami Beach Convention Hall

Weight: 210.5 pounds

The skinny: Finally, Clay was fighting for the world heavyweight title in one of the most anticipated bouts of that era. Liston had won his title by knocking out champion Floyd Patterson in the first round. Clay came in as a 7-1 underdog, yet taunted Liston before the fight, repeatedly calling the ex-convict, who had alleged ties to organized crime, a “big, ugly bear.” From the start, Clay’s speed, quickness and movement made Liston’s heavy punches look slow. Clay complained that his eyes were burning after the fourth round, and he couldn’t see. Dundee rinsed his eyes out with a sponge and pushed him out for the fifth. Clay stayed away from Liston in the fifth, and by the sixth round his vision had cleared. He began connecting on combinations at will, and at the end of the sixth round Liston said he couldn’t continue, complaining of a shoulder injury. Clay ran around the ring shouting, “I am the greatest!” and “I shook up the world!” The next day, Clay changed his name to Cassius X, and then Muhammad Ali.

21. May 25, 1965 (21-0)

Opponent: Sonny Liston (35-2)

Site: St. Dominic’s Hall, Lewiston, Maine

Weight: 206 pounds

The skinny: Because of the way the first fight ended, boxing authorities order a rematch in remote Lewiston. Only 2,434 fans were present, the lowest attendance ever for a heavyweight title fight. The end of the fight remains one of the most controversial in boxing history. Halfway through the first round, Liston fell to the canvas in what many have argued was not a legitimate knockdown. Ali did not retreat to his corner, but stood over Liston, yelling at him, “Get up and fight, sucker!” The photo that captured that moment became one of the most famous in all of sports. Referee Jersey Joe Walcott, a former heavyweight champion, appeared confused, and 20 seconds passed. By then Liston had gotten up and resumed boxing. But Nat Fleischer, publisher of The Ring, alerted Walcott that Liston had been down more than the requisite 10 seconds, and Walcott stopped the fight, giving Ali a first-round knockout. Some claimed that Liston had bet against himself and took a dive because he owed money to the Mafia. Liston said years later in an interview that he feared for his safety from Nation of Islam extremists who supported Ali.

22. Nov. 22, 1965 (22-0)

Opponent: Floyd Patterson (43-4)

Site: Las Vegas Convention Center

Weight: 210 pounds

The skinny: Patterson, on the comeback trail after two losses to Liston, said in a pre-fight interview, “This fight is a crusade to reclaim the title from the Black Muslims. As a Catholic, I am fighting Clay (he persisted in calling Ali by his birth name) as a patriotic duty. I am going to return the crown to America.” Ali toyed with Patterson throughout the fight before winning on a 12th-round TKO.

23. March 29, 1966 (23-0)

Opponent: George Chuvalo (34-11-2)

Site: Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto

Weight: 214.5 pounds

The skinny: Chuvalo, a Canadian, is widely regarded as having the best chin in boxing history, having never been knocked down in 93 fights. This fight would have been for Ali’s world title, but boxing politics caused it to be called “a heavyweight showdown.” The fight went the distance, with Ali winning a unanimous decision. “He’s the toughest guy I ever fought,” Ali said afterward. Dundee said of Chuvalo: “He never stopped coming on. You’ve got to admire a man like that.”

24. May 21, 1966 (24-0)

Opponent: Henry Cooper (33-11-1)

Site: Arsenal Football Stadium, London

Weight: 201.5 pounds

The skinny: After the controversial first fight, the second was for the world title, but it was fairly anticlimactic. Cooper, who had a tendency to suffer cuts, succumbed again to his weakness, and a bad cut over his left eye stopped the fight after six rounds.

25. Aug. 6, 1966 (25-0)

Opponent: Brian London (35-13)

Site: Earls Court Arena, London

Weight: 209 pounds

The skinny: London, known as the “Blackpool Tower,” was a mediocre boxer who had been beaten by Cooper three times before he fought Ali. Ingemar Johansson had said London would have struggled to beat his sister. Ali toyed with him for a couple rounds before knocking him unconscious in the third round at Dundee’s insistence.

March 2021 Calendar

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Go to 2021 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
March 1, 20216:3017:4711h 17m
March 2, 20216:2917:4811h 19m
March 3, 20216:2717:4911h 22m
March 4, 20216:2617:5011h 24m
March 5, 20216:2417:5211h 28m
March 6, 20216:2317:5311h 30m
March 7, 20216:2117:5411h 33m
March 8, 20216:2017:5511h 35m
March 9, 20216:1817:5611h 38m
March 10, 20216:1617:5711h 41m
March 11, 20216:1517:5811h 43m
March 12, 20216:1317:5911h 46m
March 13, 20216:1118:0011h 49m
Note: Start 2021 Daylight Saving Time (+1 hour)
March 14, 20217:1019:0111h 51m
March 15, 20217:0819:0311h 55m
March 16, 20217:0719:0411h 57m
March 17, 20217:0519:0512h 0m
March 18, 20217:0319:0612h 3m
March 19, 20217:0219:0712h 5m
March 20, 20217:0019:0812h 8m
March 21, 20216:5819:0912h 11m
March 22, 20216:5719:1012h 13m
March 23, 20216:5519:1112h 16m
March 24, 20216:5319:1212h 19m
March 25, 20216:5219:1312h 21m
March 26, 20216:5019:1412h 24m
March 27, 20216:4819:1512h 27m
March 28, 20216:4719:1612h 29m
March 29, 20216:4519:1712h 32m
March 30, 20216:4319:1812h 35m
March 31, 20216:4219:2012h 38m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the March 2021 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.

Medication Regimens

Medication can be administered using fixed-schedule or symptom-triggered regimens (Table 3) .10 With a fixed-schedule regimen, doses of a benzodiazepine are administered at specific intervals, and additional doses of the medication are given as needed based on the severity of the withdrawal symptoms. In a symptom-triggered regimen, medication is given only when the CIWA-Ar score is higher than 8 points.

Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal

Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale.

Adapted from Sullivan JT, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, Naranjo CA, Sellers EM. Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar). Br J Addict 198984:1353𠄷 .

Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal

Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale.

Adapted from Sullivan JT, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, Naranjo CA, Sellers EM. Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar). Br J Addict 198984:1353𠄷 .

Examples of Treatment Regimens for Alcohol Withdrawal

Monitoring (with no medication)

Monitor the patient by administering the CIWA-Ar (see Figure 1 ) every 4 to 8 hours until the score has been lower than 8 to 10 points for 24 hours.

Perform additional assessments as needed.

Administer the CIWA-Ar every hour to assess the patient’s need for medication.

Administer one of the following medications every hour when the CIWA-Ar score is at least 8 to 10 points:

Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), 50 to 100 mg

Diazepam (Valium), 10 to 20 mg

Lorazepam (Ativan), 2 to 4 mg

Administer one of the following medications every 6 hours:

Chlordiazepoxide, four doses of 50 mg, then eight doses of 25 mg

Diazepam, four doses of 10 mg, then eight doses of 5 mg

Lorazepam, four doses of 2 mg, then eight doses of 1 mg

Provide additional medication as needed when symptoms are not controlled (i.e., the CIWA-Ar score remains at least 8 to 10 points).

CIWA-Ar = Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol, revised .

Adapted with permission from Mayo-Smith MF. Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal. A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. JAMA 1997278:148 .

Examples of Treatment Regimens for Alcohol Withdrawal

Monitoring (with no medication)

Monitor the patient by administering the CIWA-Ar (see Figure 1 ) every 4 to 8 hours until the score has been lower than 8 to 10 points for 24 hours.

Perform additional assessments as needed.

Administer the CIWA-Ar every hour to assess the patient’s need for medication.

Administer one of the following medications every hour when the CIWA-Ar score is at least 8 to 10 points:

Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), 50 to 100 mg

Diazepam (Valium), 10 to 20 mg

Lorazepam (Ativan), 2 to 4 mg

Administer one of the following medications every 6 hours:

Chlordiazepoxide, four doses of 50 mg, then eight doses of 25 mg

Diazepam, four doses of 10 mg, then eight doses of 5 mg

Lorazepam, four doses of 2 mg, then eight doses of 1 mg

Provide additional medication as needed when symptoms are not controlled (i.e., the CIWA-Ar score remains at least 8 to 10 points).

CIWA-Ar = Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol, revised .

Adapted with permission from Mayo-Smith MF. Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal. A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. JAMA 1997278:148 .

Symptom-triggered regimens have been shown to result in the administration of less total medication and to require a shorter duration of treatment.11 , 12 In one randomized, double-blind controlled trial,11 patients in the symptom-triggered group received an average of 100 mg of chlordiazepoxide, whereas patients in the fixed-schedule group received an average of 425 mg. The median duration of treatment in the symptom-triggered group was nine hours, compared with 68 hours in the fixed-schedule group. Patients were excluded from the study if they had concurrent medical or psychiatric illness requiring hospitalization or seizures from any cause.11

Another trial12 yielded similar results, with patients in the fixed-schedule group receiving an average of 231.4 mg of oxazepam and those in the symptom-triggered group receiving an average of 37.5 mg. Of the patients in the symptom-triggered group, 61 percent did not receive any oxazepam. This trial excluded persons with major psychiatric, cognitive, or medical comorbidities.

The use of symptom-triggered therapy requires training of the clinical staff. If this training has not been provided, fixed-schedule pharmacotherapy should be used.10

March 8, 2013 Day 48 of the Fifth Year - History

METAFONT (Computer system). 2.

Type and type-cr founding--Data processing. I.

knuth/abcde.html> contains current information about this book and related books. smallskip oindent Copyright $copyright$ 1986 by the American Mathematical Society smallskip oindent This book is published jointly by the American Mathematical Society and Addisonkern.1em--Wesley Publishing Company. All rights reserved. %No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in %a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, %electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without %the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in the United %States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a

retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts with the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions Department, please visit < t www.pearson.com/permissions/>. Printed in the United States of America. % Published simultaneously in Canada. medskip oindent %ISBN 0-201-13444-6par % paperback %ISBN 0-201-13445-4par % hardcover ISBN-13 enspace 978-0-201-13445-2par oindent ISBN-10 enspacephantom<978->0-201-13445-4par oindent ISBN-13 enspace 978-0-201-13444-5 (soft)par oindent ISBN-10 enspacephantom<978->0-201-13444-6 (soft)par %11 12 13 14 15 16--CRS--07 06 05 04 03 02 % paperback %7 8 9 10 11 12 13--CRS--07 06 05 04 03 02 01 % hardcover smallskip oindent %Text printed in the United States %% at Courier Westford in Westford, Massachusetts.par oindent %%at LSC Communications in Crawfordsville, Indiana.par oindent %at LSC Communicationspar oindent %%Eighth Printing, February 2012par oindent %Fourteenth Softcover Printing, May 2017par oindent %14quad17 %Ninth Printing, November 2017par oindent %9quad17 Tenth Printing, February 2021par oindent smallskip fontpearsonkluj=arial at 9pt leftline ^^ ^^|copyright| eject % dedication itlepage vbox to 8pc<> ightline ^^ vskip2pt ightline vfill eject % blank page itlepage ullvfill eject % the preface itlepage def head vbox to 8pc< ightline< itlefont Preface>vss> < opskip 9pc % this makes equal sinkage throughout the Preface vskip-parskip enpoint oindenthanghangafter-2 smash>hskip-16pt strut by mathematical means was first tried in the fifteenth century it became popular in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and it was abandoned (for good reasons) during the eighteenth century. Perhaps the twentieth century will turn out to be the right time for this idea to make a comeback, now that mathematics has advanced and computers are able to do the calculations. Modern printing equipment based on raster lines---in which metal ``type'' has been replaced by purely combinatorial patterns of zeroes and ones that specify the desired position of ink in a discrete way---makes mathematics and computer science increasingly relevant to printing. We now have the ability to give a completely precise definition of letter shapes that will produce essentially equivalent results on all raster-based machines. Moreover, the shapes can be defined in terms of variable parameters computers can ``draw'' new fonts of characters in seconds, making it possible for designers to perform valuable experiments that were previously unthinkable. MF is a system for the design of alphabets suited to raster-based devices that print or display text. The characters that you are reading were all designed with MF!, in a completely precise way and they were developed rather hastily by the author of the system, who is a rank amateur at such things. It seems clear that further work with MF has the potential of producing typefaces of real ^. This manual has been written for people who would like to help advance the art of mathematical type design. A top-notch designer of typefaces needs to have an unusually good eye and a highly developed sensitivity to the nuances of shapes. A top-notch user of computer languages needs to have an unusual talent for abstract reasoning and a highly developed ability to express intuitive ideas in formal terms. Very few people have both of these unusual combinations of skills hence the best products of MF will probably be collaborative efforts between two people who complement each other's abilities. Indeed, this situation isn't very different from the way types have been created for many generations, except that the r^ole of ``punch-cutter'' is now being played by skilled computer specialists instead of by skilled metalworkers. A MF user writes a ``program'' for each letter or symbol of a typeface. These programs are different from ordinary computer programs, because they are essentially rather than imperative. In the MF language you explain where the major components of a desired shape are to be located, and how they relate to each other, but you don't have to work out the details of exactly where the lines cross, etc. the computer takes over the work of solving equations as it deduces the consequences of your specifications. One of the advantages of MF is that it provides a discipline according to which the principles of a particular alphabet design can be stated precisely. The underlying intelligence does not remain hidden in the mind of the designer it is spelled out in the programs. Thus consistency can readily be obtained where consistency is desirable, and a font can readily be extended to new symbols that are compatible with the existing ones. It would be nice if a system like MF were to simplify the task of type design to the point where beautiful new alphabets could be created in a few hours. This, alas, is impossible an enormous amount of subtlety lies behind the seemingly simple letter shapes that we see every day, and the designers of high-quality typefaces have done their work so well that we don't notice the underlying complexity. One of the disadvantages of MF is that a person can easily use it to produce poor alphabets, cheaply and in great quantity. Let us hope that such experiments will have educational value as they reveal why the subtle tricks of the trade are important, but let us also hope that they will not cause bad workmanship to proliferate. Anybody can now produce a book in which all of the type is home-made, but a person or team of persons should expect to spend a year or more on the project if the type is actually supposed to look right. MF won't put today's type designers out of work on the contrary, it will tend to make them heroes and heroines, as more and more people come to appreciate their skills. Although there is no royal road to type design, there are some things that can, in fact, be done well with MF in an afternoon. Geometric designs are rather easy and it doesn't take long to make modifications to letters or symbols that have previously been expressed in MF form. Thus, although comparatively few users of MF will have the courage to do an entire alphabet from scratch, there will be many who will enjoy customizing someone else's design. This book is not a text about mathematics or about computers. But if you know the rudiments of those subjects (namely, contemporary high school mathematics, together with the knowledge of how to use the text editing or word processing facilities on your computing machine), you should be able to use MF with little difficulty after reading what follows. Some parts of the exposition in the text are more obscure than others, however, since the author has tried to satisfy experienced MF ers as well as beginners and casual users with a single manual. Therefore a special symbol has been used to warn about esoterica: When you see the sign $vboxvskip 11pt>$ at the beginning of a paragraph, watch out for a ``^'' in the train of thought---don't read such a paragraph unless you need to. You will be able to use MF reasonably well, even to design characters like the dangerous-bend symbol itself, without reading the fine print in such advanced sections. Some of the paragraphs in this manual are so far out that they are rated $vcentervskip 11pt>$ everything that was said about single dangerous-bend signs goes double for these. You should probably have at least a month's experience with MF before you attempt to fathom such doubly dangerous depths of the system in fact, most people will never need to know MF in this much detail, even if they use it every day. After all, it's possible to fry an egg without knowing anything about biochemistry. Yet the whole story is here in case you're curious. (About MF!, not eggs.) The reason for such different levels of complexity is that people change as they grow accustomed to any powerful tool. When you first try to use MF!, you'll find that some parts of it are very easy, while other things will take some getting used to. At first you'll probably try to control the shapes too rigidly, by overspecifying data that has been copied from some other medium. But later, after you have begun to get a feeling for what the machine can do well, you'll be a different person, and you'll be willing to let MF help contribute to your designs as they are being developed. As you gain more and more experience working with this unusual apprentice, your perspective will continue to change and you will run into different sorts of challenges. That's the way it is with any powerful tool: There's always more to learn, and there are always better ways to do what you've done before. At every stage in the development you'll want a slightly different sort of manual. You may even want to write one yourself. By paying attention to the dangerous bend signs in this book you'll be better able to focus on the level that interests you at a particular time. Computer system manuals usually make dull reading, but take heart: This one contains > every once in a while. You might actually enjoy reading it. (However, most of the jokes can only be appreciated properly if you understand a technical point that is being made---so read .) Another noteworthy characteristic of this book is that it doesn't always tell the ^. When certain concepts of MF are introduced informally, general rules will be stated afterwards you will find that the rules aren't strictly true. In general, the later chapters contain more reliable information than the earlier ones do. The author feels that this technique of deliberate lying will actually make it easier for you to learn the ideas. Once you understand a simple but false rule, it will not be hard to supplement that rule with its exceptions. In order to help you internalize what you're reading, > are sprinkled through this manual. It is generally intended that every reader should try every exercise, except for questions that appear in the ``dangerous bend'' areas. If you can't solve a problem, you can always look up the answer. But please, try first to solve it by yourself then you'll learn more and you'll learn faster. Furthermore, if you think you do know the solution, you should turn to Appendix

A and check it out, just to make sure. igskip hrule line: Type design can be hazardous to your other interests. Once you get hooked, you will develop intense feelings about letterforms the medium will intrude on the messages that you read. And you will perpetually be thinking of improvements to the fonts that you see everywhere, especially those of your own design. strutmedskip>hssvrule> hrule igskip The MF language described here has very little in common with the author's previous attempt at a language for alphabet design, because five years of experience with the old system has made it clear that a completely different approach is preferable. Both languages have been called MF but henceforth the old language should be called MFkern.05em79, and its use should rapidly fade away. Let's keep the name MF for the language described here, since it is so much better, and since it will never change again. ^^ I wish to thank the hundreds of people who have helped me to formulate this ``definitive edition'' of MF!, based on their experiences with preliminary versions of the system. In particular, John ^ discovered many of the algorithms that have made the new language possible. My work at Stanford has been generously supported by the ^, the ^, the ^, and the ^. I also wish to thank the ^ for its encouragement and for publishing the /> newsletter (see Appendix

J ull). Above all, I deeply thank my wife, Jill, for the inspiration, ^^ understanding, comfort, and support she has given me for more than 25

years, especially during the eight years that I have been working intensively on mathematical typography. medskip line<hfil--- D. E. K.>^^ line > % end of the special opskip endchapter It is hoped that Divine Justice may find some suitable affliction for the malefactors who invent variations upon the alphabet of our fathers.

. hinspace. hinspace. The type-founder, worthy mechanic, has asserted himself with an overshadowing individuality, defacing with his monstrous creations and revivals every publication in the land. author AMBROSE ^,

Alphab^etes/> % (1911) % vol 10 of his collected works, p69 % probably written originally in 1898 or 1899 igskip Can the new process yield a result that, say, a Club of Bibliophiles would recognise as a work of art comparable to the choice books they have in their cabinets? author STANLEY ^, (1958) % pp 4--5 eject % the table of contents itlepage vbox to 8pc < ightline< itlefont Contents>vfill> ^^ def head enpoint egingroup countdefcounter=255 defdiamondleaders> aselineskip 15pt plus 5pt def#1. #2. #3.hss>% m#2diamondleadershfilhbox to 2em>> 1. The Name of the Game. 1. 2. Coordinates. 5. 3. Curves. 13. 4. Pens. 21. 5. Running MF! ull. 31. 6. How MF Reads What You Type. 49. 7. Variables. 53. 8. Algebraic Expressions. 59. 9. Equations. 75. 10. Assignments. 87. 11. Magnification and Resolution. 91. 12. Boxes. 101. 13. Drawing, Filling, and Erasing. 109. 14. Paths. 123. 15. Transformations. 141. 16. Calligraphic Effects. 147. 17. Grouping. 155. 18. Definitions (also called Macros). 159. 19. Conditions and Loops. 169. 20. More About Macros. 175. 21. Random Numbers. 183. 22. Strings. 187. 23. Online Displays. 191. eject vbox to 8pc<> 24. Discreteness and Discretion. 195. 25. Summary of Expressions. 209. 26. Summary of the Language. 217. 27. Recovery from Errors. 223. ull leftline A. Answers to All the Exercises. 233. B. Basic Operations. 257. C. Character Codes. 281. D. Dirty Tricks. 285. E. Examples. 301. F. Font Metric Information. 315. G. Generic Font Files. 323. H. Hardcopy Proofs. 327. Ihskip 1pt. Index. 345. Jhskip 1pt. Joining the TeX Community. 361. ull % 17 lines so far to balance the 23 on the other page ull % 18 ull % 19 ull % 20 ull % 21 ull % 22 ull % 23 eject endgroup eginchapter Chapter 1. The Name of he Game pageno=1 % This is page number 1, number 1, This is a book about a computer system called MF!, kern1pt just as kern-1pt is about TeX. MF and TeX are good friends who intend to live together for a long time. Between them they take care of the two most fundamental tasks of typesetting: TeX puts characters into the proper positions on a page, while MF determines the shapes of the characters themselves. ^^ ^^ Why is the system called MF hinspace? The `- hinspace' part is easy to understand, because sets of related characters that are used in typesetting are traditionally known as fonts of type. The `-' part is more interesting: It indicates that we are interested in making high-level descriptions that transcend any of the individual fonts being described. Newly coined words beginning with `meta-' generally reflect our contemporary inclination to view things from outside or above, at a more abstract level than before, with what we feel is a more mature understanding. We now have metapsychology (the study of how the mind relates to its containing body), metahistory (the study of principles that control the course of events), metamathematics (the study of mathematical reasoning), metafiction (literary works that explicitly acknowledge their own forms), and so on. A metamathematician proves metatheorems (theorems about theorems) a computer scientist often works with metalanguages (languages for describing languages). Similarly, a ^ is a schematic description of the shapes in a family of related fonts the letterforms change appropriately as their underlying parameters change. Meta-design is much more difficult than design. It's easier to draw something than to explain how to draw it. One of the problems is that different sets of potential specifications can't easily be envisioned all at once. Another is that a computer has to be told absolutely everything. However, once we have successfully explained how to draw something in a sufficiently general manner, the same explanation will work for related shapes, in different circumstances so

the time spent in formulating a precise explanation turns out to be worth it. Typefaces intended for text are normally seen small, and our eyes can read them best when the letters have been designed specifically for the size at which they are actually used. Although it is tempting to get 7-point fonts by simply making a 70\% reduction from the 10-point size, this shortcut leads to a serious degradation of quality. Much better results can be obtained by incorporating parametric variations into a meta-design. In fact, there are advantages to built-in variability even when you want to produce only one font of type in a single size, because it allows you to postpone making decisions about many aspects of your design. If you leave certain things undefined, treating them as parameters instead of ``freezing'' the specifications at an early stage, the computer will be able to draw lots of examples with different settings of the parameters, and you will be able to see the results of all those experiments at the final size. This will greatly increase your ability to edit and fine-tune the font. If meta-fonts are so much better than plain old ordinary fonts, why weren't they developed long ago? The main reason is that computers did not exist until recently. People find it difficult and dull to carry out calculations with a multiplicity of parameters, while today's machines do such tasks with ease. The introduction of parameters is a natural outgrowth of automation. OK, let's grant that meta-fonts sound good, at least in theory. There's still the practical problem about how to achieve them. How can we actually specify shapes that depend on unspecified parameters? If only one parameter is varying, it's fairly easy to solve the problem in a visual way, by overlaying a series of drawings that show graphically how the shape changes. For example, if the parameter varies from 0 to

1, we might prepare five sketches, corresponding to the parameter values 0, $1over4$, $1over2$, $3over4$, and

1. If these sketches follow a consistent pattern, we can readily ^ to find the shape for a value like

$2over3$ that lies between two of the given ones. We might even try extrapolating to parameter values like 1$1over4$. But if there are two or more independent parameters, a purely visual solution becomes too cumbersome. We must go to a verbal approach, using some sort of language to describe the desired drawings. Let's imagine, for example, that we want to explain the shape of a certain letter `a' to a friend in a distant country, using only a telephone for communication our friend is supposed to be able to reconstruct exactly the shape we have in mind. Once we figure out a sufficiently natural way to do that, for a particular fixed shape, it isn't much of a trick to go further and make our verbal description more general, by including variable parameters instead of restricting ourselves to constants. An analogy to cooking might make this point clearer. Suppose you have just baked a delicious berry pie, and your friends ask you to tell them the ^ so that they can bake one too. If you have developed your cooking skills entirely by intuition, you might find it difficult to record exactly what you did. But there is a traditional language of recipes in which you could communicate the steps you followed and if you take careful measurements, you might find that you used, say, 1$1over4$ cups of sugar. The next step, if you were instructing a computer-controlled cooking machine, would be to go to a meta-recipe in which you use, say, $.25x$ cups of sugar for $x$ cups of berries or $.3x+.2y$ cups for $x$

cups of boysenberries and $y$

cups of blackberries. In other words, going from design to meta-design is essentially like going from arithmetic to elementary algebra. Numbers are replaced by simple formulas that involve unknown quantities. We will see many examples of this. A MF definition of a complete typeface generally consists of three main parts. First there is a rather mundane set of subroutines that take care of necessary administrative details, such as assigning code numbers to individual characters each character must also be positioned properly inside an invisible ``box,'' so that typesetting systems will produce the correct spacing. Next comes a more interesting collection of subroutines, designed to draw the basic strokes characteristic of the typeface (e.g., the serifs, bowls, arms, arches, and so on). These subroutines will typically be described in terms of their own special parameters, so that they can produce a variety of related strokes a serif subroutine will, for example, be able to draw serifs of different lengths, although all of the serifs it draws should have the same ``feeling.'' Finally, there are routines for each of the characters. If the subroutines in the first and second parts have been chosen well, the routines of the third part will be fairly high-level descriptions that don't concern themselves unnecessarily with details for example, it may be possible to substitute a different serif-drawing subroutine without changing any of the programs that use that subroutine, thereby obtaining a typeface of quite a different flavor. [A particularly striking example of this approach has been worked out by John

D. ^ and ^ Guoan in ``A Chinese Meta-Font,'' (1984), 119--136. By changing a set of 13 basic stroke subroutines, they were able to draw 128 sample ^ in three different styles (Song, Long Song, and Bold), using the same programs for the characters.] A well-written MF program will express the designer's intentions more clearly than mere drawings ever can, because the language of algebra has simple ``idioms'' that make it possible to elucidate many visual relationships. Thus, MF programs can be used to communicate knowledge about type design, just as recipes convey the expertise of a chef. But algebraic formulas are not easy to understand in isolation MF descriptions are meant to be read with an accompanying illustration, just as the constructions in geometry textbooks are accompanied by diagrams. Nobody is ever expected to read the text of a MF program and say, ``Ah, what a beautiful letter!'' But with one or more enlarged pictures of the letter, based on one or more settings of the parameters, a reader of the MF program should be able to say, ``Ah, I

understand how this beautiful letter was drawn!'' We shall see that the MF system makes it fairly easy to obtain annotated proof drawings that you can hold in your hand as you are working with a program. Although MF is intended to provide a relatively painless way to describe meta-fonts, you can, of course, use it also to describe unvarying shapes that have no ``meta-ness'' at all. Indeed, you need not even use it to produce fonts the system will happily draw geometric designs that have no relation to the characters or glyphs of any alphabet or script. The author occasionally uses MF simply as a pocket calculator, to do elementary arithmetic in an interactive way. A computer doesn't mind if its programs are put to purposes that don't match their names. endchapter [Tinguely] made some large, brightly coloured open reliefs, juxtaposing stationary and mobile shapes. He later gave them names like/ % < m Meta-^>kern-1pt and/ < m Meta-^>kern-.5pt, to clarify the ideas and attitudes % that lay at the root of their conception. author K. G. PONTUS ^, : M'eta/> (1972) % translated from German by Mary Whittall, 1975, p46 igskip The idea of a meta-font should now be clear. But what good is it? The ability to manipulate lots of parameters may be interesting and fun, but does anybody really need a 6/kern1pt-point font that is one fourth of the way between Baskerville and Helvetica? author DONALD E. ^, (1982) % Visible Language 16, p19 eject eginchapter Chapter 2. Coordinates If we want to tell a computer how to draw a particular shape, we need a way to explain where the key points of that shape are supposed to be. MF uses standard ^/> for this purpose: The location of a point is defined by specifying its $x$

coordinate, which is the number of units to the right of some reference point, and its $y$

coordinate, which is the number of units upward from the reference point. First we determine the horizontal (left/right) component of a point's position, then we determine the vertical (up/down) component. MF's world is two-dimensional, so two coordinates are enough.% ^^ ^^ For example, let's consider the following six points: displayfig 2a (4.75pc) MF's names for the positions of these points are egindisplay $(x_1,y_1)=(0,100)$(x_2,y_2)=(100,100)$(x_3,y_3)=(200,100)$cr $(x_4,y_4)=(0,hfill0)$(x_5,y_5)=(100,hfill0) $(x_6,y_6)=(200,hfill0)$.cr enddisplay Point 4 is the same as the reference point, since both of its coordinates are zero to get to point

$3=(200,100)$, you start at the reference point and go 200

up and so on. exercise Which of the six example points is closest to the point $(60,30)$? answer Point $5=(100,0)$ is closer than any of the others. (See the diagram below.) exercise True or false: All points that lie on a given horizontal straight line have the same $x$

coordinate. answer decreasehsize 15pc ightfig A2a (13pc x 5pc) ^9pt False. But they all do have the same $y$

coordinate. exercise Explain where the point $(-5,15)$ is located. answer 5 units to the of the reference point, and 15 units up. exercise What are the coordinates of a point that lies exactly 60

6 in the diagram above? (``Below'' means ``down the page,'' not ``under the page.'') answer estorehsize $(200,-60)$. In a typical application of MF!, you prepare a rough sketch of the shape you plan to define, on a piece of ^, and you label important points on that sketch with any convenient numbers. Then you write a MF program that explains (i)

the coordinates of those key points, and (ii)

the lines or curves that are supposed to go between them. MF has its own internal graph paper, which forms a so-called ^ or ^ consisting of square ``^.'' ^^ The output of MF will hbox that certain of the pixels are ``black'' and that the others are ``white'' thus, the computer essentially converts shapes into binary patterns like the designs a

person can make when doing needlepoint with two colors of yarn. Coordinates are lengths, but we haven't discussed yet what the units of length actually are. It's important to choose convenient units, and MF's coordinates are given in units of pixels. The little squares illustrated on the previous page, which correspond to differences of 10

coordinate, therefore represent $10 imes10$ arrays of pixels, and the rectangle enclosed by our six example points contains 20,000 pixels altogether.footnote* Coordinates don't have to be whole numbers. You can refer, for example, to point $(31.5,42.5)$, which lies smack in the middle of the pixel whose corners are at $(31,42)$, $(31,43)$, $(32,42)$, and

$(32,43)$. The computer works internally with coordinates that are integer multiples of $<1over65536>approx0.00002$ of the width of a pixel, so it is capable of making very fine distinctions. But MF will never make a pixel half black it's all or nothing, as far as the output is concerned. The fineness of a grid is usually called its >, and resolution is usually expressed in pixel units per inch (in America) or pixel units per millimeter (elsewhere). For example, the type you are now reading was prepared by MF with a resolution of slightly more than 700 pixels to the inch, but with slightly fewer than 30 pixels per

mm. For the time being we shall assume that the pixels are so tiny that the operation of rounding to whole pixels is unimportant later we will consider the important questions that arise when MF is producing low-resolution output. It's usually desirable to write MF programs that can manufacture fonts at many different resolutions, so that a variety of low-resolution printing devices will be able to make proofs that are compatible with a variety of high-resolution devices. Therefore the key points in MF programs are rarely specified in terms of pure numbers like `100' hinspace we generally make the coordinates relative to some other resolution-dependent quantity, so that changes will be easy to make. For example, it would have been better to use a definition something like the following, for the six points considered earlier: egindisplay $(x_1,y_1)=(0,b)$(x_2,y_2)=(a,b)$(x_3,y_3)=(2a,b)$cr $(x_4,y_4)=(0,0)$(x_5,y_5)=(a,0)$(x_6,y_6)=(2a,0)$cr enddisplay then the quantities $a$ and $b$ can be defined in some way appropriate to the desired resolution. We had $a=b=100$ in our previous example, but such constant values leave us with little or no flexibility. Notice the quantity `$2a

Women in Modern History

Modern History is generally seen as beginning in the late 1500s with the Renaissance. While the Renaissance artists painted beautiful female nudes, the Renaissance did not seem to greatly affect women&aposs historical experience. If anything, women&aposs role became more deeply defined as the homemaker and nothing else.

Across Europe, women could not vote, were strongly discouraged from owning a business and had many fewer property rights than men. Young aristocratic women were often forced into political marriages where all their property transferred to their husband and they were effectively trapped. Strict expectations of women&aposs chastity prevailed, and women who broke the rules were punished as criminals and social exiles.

It is only really in the twentieth century that women have made such gains in equality that it is nothing short of revolutionary. Women&aposs groups such as the Suffragettes campaigned successfully for women to be granted the right to vote - in most countries this had happened by 1930. The two world wars showed that women could take men&aposs place in factories, that they could work outside the home as well as within it and that they could contribute to the economy.

After WWII many women were reluctant to go back to their previous lives. They had enjoyed the camaraderie and sense of purpose of the factories. So much so that the fifties saw a backlash - the media and advertisers at this time emphasise a strongly traditional female role and the value of passive behavious such as &aposkeeping your man happy&apos and &aposputting his needs first&apos.

The feminist revolution of the sixties and seventies went on to change women&aposs experience forever. While full equality has now been reached it is now natural to see female politicians, doctors, business leaders, and writers. It seems crazy now that a woman could be dismissed as automatically dumber than a man, or that a woman could be barred from a profession because of her gender (Catholic priesthood notwithstanding!).

At the end of the day what is important is that women have a choice about how they want to be, and behave and how they spend their time. Women through history have not always had that choice - often society has placed strict controls on them. We owe a debt of gratitude the women who went before us and changed the rules forever.

March 8, 2013 Day 48 of the Fifth Year - History

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.39.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 2] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3. Escaping for use in XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4. Special Unicode Code Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5. Including Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8.1. Internet Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Appendix A. Front Page Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.1. The /rfc/@category Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.2. The /rfc/@ipr Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.2.1. Current Values: '*trust200902' . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A.2.2. Historic Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2629 ('v1') . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 B.1. Removed Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 B.2. Changed Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 B.3. Changed Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 B.4. New Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Appendix C. Relax NG Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 C.1. Checking Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Appendix D. Proposed Future Changes for 'v3' . . . . . . . . . . 52 D.1. Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D.2. Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D.3. Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D.4. Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 D.5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 D.6. Archival Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 D.7. Document Metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 D.8. Including Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 D.9. Misc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 3] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 1. Introduction This document describes version 2 ('v2') of the 'XML2RFC' vocabulary an XML-based language ('Extensible Markup Language', [XML]) used for writing RFCs ([RFCSTYLE]) and Internet-Drafts ([IDGUIDE]). It obsoletes the original version ("v1") [RFC2629], which contained the original language definition, and which was subsequently extended ("v2"). Furthermore, it discusses potential extensions in a future revision ("v3"). Note that the vocabulary contains certain constructs that might not be used when generating the final text however, they can provide useful data for other uses (such index generation, populating a keyword database, or syntax checks). 1.1. Syntax Notation The XML vocabulary here is defined in prose, based on the Relax NG schema ([RNC]) contained in Appendix C (specified in Relax NG Compact Notation, "RNC"). Note that the schema can be used for automated validity checks, but certain constraints are only described in prose (example: the conditionally required presence of the "abbrev" attribute). 2. Elements The sections below describe all elements and their attributes. Note that attributes not labeled "mandatory" are optional. 2.1. Contains the abstract of the document. The abstract ought to be self-contained and thus should not contain references or unexpanded abbreviations. See Section 4.3 of [RFCSTYLE] for more information. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.19). Content model: One or more elements (Section 2.38) 2.2. Provides address information for the author. Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 4] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.6). Content model: In this order: 1. One optional

element (Section 2.27) 2. One optional

(Section 2.39). Content model: In any order: o Text o elements (Section 2.45) o elements (Section 2.15) o elements (Section 2.20) o elements (Section 2.12) o elements (Section 2.36) 2.9. Gives the city name in a postal address. This element appears as child element of:

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.10. Gives the postal region code. This element appears as child element of:

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 10] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.11. Gives the country in a postal address. This element appears as child element of:

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.12. Represents a comment. Comments can be used in a document while it is work-in-progress. They usually appear either inline and visually highlighted, at the end of the document (depending on file format and settings of the formatter), or not at all (when generating an RFC). This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.12.1. 'anchor' attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this comment. The processor will auto-generate an identifier when none is given. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]), additionally constrained to US-ASCII characters ([USASCII]). 2.12.2. 'source' attribute Holds the "source" of a comment, such as the name or the initials of the person who made the comment. 2.13. Provides information about the publication date. Note that this element is used both for the boilerplate of the document being produced, and also inside bibliographic references. In the first case, it defines the publication date, which, when producing Internet-Drafts, will be used for computing the expiration date (see Section 8 of [IDGUIDE]). When "year", "month" or "day" are left out, the processor will attempt to use the current system date if the attributes that are specified do match the system date. Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 11] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 Note that in the first case, month names need to match the full (English) month name ("January", "February", "March", "April", "May, "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", or "December") in order for expiration calculations to work (some implementations might support additional formats, though). In the second case, the date information can have prose text for the month or year. For example, vague dates (year="ca. 2000"), date ranges (year="2012-2013") non-specific months (month="Second quarter") and so on, are allowed. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.19). Content model: this element does not have any contents. 2.13.1. 'day' attribute Day of publication this is a number. 2.13.2. 'month' attribute Month of publication this is the English name of the month. 2.13.3. 'year' attribute Year of publication. 2.14. Provides an email address. The value is expected to be the scheme-specific part of a "mailto" URI (so does not include the prefix "mailto:"). See Section 2 of [RFC6068] for details. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. 2.15. Represents an "external" link (as specified in the "target" attribute). If the element has text content, that content will be used. Otherwise, the value of the target attribute will be inserted in angle brackets ([RFC3986], Appendix C). Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 12] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.15.1. 'target' attribute (mandatory) URI of the link target (see Section 3 of [RFC3986]). 2.16. Represents the phone number of a fax machine. The value is expected to be the scheme-specific part of a "tel" URI (so does not include the prefix "tel:"), using the "global numbers" syntax. See Section 3 of [RFC3966] for details. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. 2.17. This element is used to represent a figure, consisting of an optional preamble, the actual figure, an optional postamble, and an optional title. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.34), and (Section 2.38). Content model: In this order: 1. Optional elements (Section 2.20) 2. One optional

element (Section 2.28) 2.17.1. 'align' attribute Used to change the alignment of

Represents a phone number. The value is expected to be the scheme-specific part of a "tel" URI (so does not include the prefix "tel:"), using the "global numbers" syntax. See Section 3 of [RFC3966] for details. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. 2.27.

Gives text that appears at the bottom of a figure or table. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.17), and

(Section 2.39). Content model: In any order: o Text o elements (Section 2.45) o elements (Section 2.15) o elements (Section 2.20) o elements (Section 2.12) o elements (Section 2.36) 2.29.

Gives text that appears at the top of a figure or table. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.17), and

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.33. This is the root element of the xml2rfc vocabulary. Processors distinguish between RFC mode ("number" attribute being present) and Internet-Draft mode ("docName" attribute being present): it is invalid to specify both. Setting neither "number" nor "docName" can be useful for producing other types of document but is out-of-scope for this specification. Content model: In this order: 1. One element (Section 2.19) 2. One element (Section 2.23) 3. One optional element (Section 2.7) Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 23] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.33.1. 'category' attribute Document category (see Appendix A.1). Allowed values: o "std" o "bcp" o "info" o "exp" o "historic" 2.33.2. 'consensus' attribute Affects the generated boilerplate. See [RFC5741] for more information. Allowed values: o "no" o "yes" 2.33.3. 'docName' attribute For Internet-Drafts, this specifies the draft name (which appears below the title). A processor should give an error if both the "docName" and "number" attributes are given in the element. Note that the file extension is not part of the draft, so in general it should end with the current draft number ("-", plus two digits). Furthermore, it is good practice to disambiguate current editor copies from submitted drafts (for instance, by replacing the draft number with the string "latest"). See Section 7 of [IDGUIDE] for further information. Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 24] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.33.4. 'ipr' attribute Represents the Intellectual Property status of the document. See Appendix A.2 for details. Allowed values: o "full2026" o "noDerivativeWorks2026" o "none" o "full3667" o "noModification3667" o "noDerivatives3667" o "full3978" o "noModification3978" o "noDerivatives3978" o "trust200811" o "noModificationTrust200811" o "noDerivativesTrust200811" o "trust200902" o "noModificationTrust200902" o "noDerivativesTrust200902" o "pre5378Trust200902" 2.33.5. 'iprExtract' attribute Identifies a single section within the document (by its 'anchor' attribute) for which extraction "as-is" is explicitly allowed (this is only relevant for historic values of the "ipr" attribute). Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 25] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.33.6. 'number' attribute The number of the RFC to be produced. A processor should give an error if both the "docName" and "number" attributes are given in the element. 2.33.7. 'obsoletes' attribute A comma-separated list of RFC _numbers_ or Internet-Draft names. Processors ought to parse the attribute value, so that incorrect references can be detected and, depending on output format, hyperlinks can be generated. Also, the value ought to be reformatted to insert whitespace after each comma if not already present. 2.33.8. 'seriesNo' attribute When producing a document within document series (such as "STD"): the number within that series. 2.33.9. 'submissionType' attribute The document stream. See Section 2 of [RFC5741] for details. Allowed values: o "IETF" (default) o "IAB" o "IRTF" o "independent" 2.33.10. 'updates' attribute A comma-separated list of RFC _numbers_ or Internet-Draft names. Processors ought to parse the attribute value, so that incorrect references can be detected and, depending on output format, hyperlinks can be generated. Also, the value ought to be reformatted to insert whitespace after each comma if not already present. Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 26] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 2.33.11. 'xml:lang' attribute The natural language used in the document (defaults to "en"). See Section 2.12 of [XML] for more information. 2.34. Represents a section (when inside a element) or an appendix (when inside a element). Sub-sections are created by nesting elements inside elements. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.7), (Section 2.23), and (Section 2.34). Content model: In this order: 1. In any order: * elements (Section 2.38) * elements (Section 2.17) *

elements (Section 2.39) * elements (Section 2.20) 2. Optional elements (Section 2.34) 2.34.1. 'anchor' attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this section. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]). 2.34.2. 'title' attribute (mandatory) The title of the section. 2.34.3. 'toc' attribute Determines whether the section is included in the Table Of Contents. The processor usually has defaults for whether a Table Of Contents Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 27] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 will be produced at all, and sections of which maximal depth will be included (frequently: 3). "include" and "exclude" allow overriding the processor's default behavior for the element they are specified on (they do not affect nested elements). Allowed values: o "include" o "exclude" o "default" (default) 2.35. Specifies the document series in which this document appears, and also specifies an identifier within that series. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.30). Content model: this element does not have any contents. 2.35.1. 'name' attribute (mandatory) The name of the series. The following names trigger specific processing (such as for auto- generating links, and adding descriptions such as "work in progress"): "BCP", "FYI", "Internet-Draft", "RFC", and "STD". 2.35.2. 'value' attribute (mandatory) The identifier within the series specified by the "name" attribute. For BCPs, FYIs, RFCs, and STDs this is the number within the series. For Internet-Drafts, it is the full draft name (ending with the two- digit version number). 2.36. Wraps a piece of text, indicating special formatting styles. When generating plain text, processors usually emulate font changes using characters such as "*" and "_". The following styles are defined: Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 28] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 emph Simple emphasis (this is the default). strong Strong emphasis. verb "Verbatim" text (usually displayed usign a monospaced font face). This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.36.1. 'style' attribute The style to be used (defaults to "emph"). 2.36.2. 'xml:space' attribute Determines whitespace handling. According to the DTD, the default value is "preserve". Tests however show that it doesn't have any effect on processing thus this attribute will be removed in future versions of the vocabulary. See also Section 2.10 of [XML]. Allowed values: o "default" o "preserve" (default) 2.37. Provides a street address. This element appears as child element of:

Contains a table, consisting of an optional preamble, a header line, rows, an optional postamble, and an optional title. The number of columns in the table is determined by the number of elements. The number of rows in the table is determined by the number of elements divided by the number of columns. There is no requirement that the number of elements be evenly divisible by the number of columns. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.34). Content model: Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 30] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 In this order: 1. One optional

element (Section 2.29) 2. One or more elements (Section 2.41) 3. Optional elements (Section 2.8) 4. One optional

element (Section 2.28) 2.39.1. 'align' attribute Determines the horizontal alignment of the table. Allowed values: o "left" o "center" (default) o "right" 2.39.2. 'anchor' attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this table. Furthermore, the presence of this attribute causes the table to be numbered. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]). 2.39.3. 'style' attribute Selects which borders should be drawn, where o "all" means borders around all table cells, o "full" is like "all" except no horizontal lines between table rows (except below the column titles), o "headers" adds just a separator between column titles and rows, and o "none" means no borders at all. Allowed values: Reschke Expires December 14, 2014 [Page 31] Internet-Draft XML2RFC June 2014 o "all" o "none" o "headers" o "full" (default) 2.39.4. 'suppress-title' attribute Tables that have an "anchor" attribute will automatically get an autogenerated title (such as "Table 1"), even if the "title" attribute is absent. Setting this attribute to "true" will prevent this. Allowed values: o "true" o "false" (default) 2.39.5. 'title' attribute The title for the table this usually appears on a line below the table body. 2.40. Represents the document title. When this element appears in the element of the current document, the title might also appear in page headers or footers. If it's long (

40 characters), the "abbrev" attribute is used to specify an abbreviated variant. This element appears as child element of: (Section 2.19). Content model: only text content. 2.40.1. 'abbrev' attribute Specifies an abbreviated variant of the document title. 2.41. Contains a column heading in a table. This element appears as child element of: