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John Hargreaves

John Hargreaves

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John Hargreaves was born in Blackburn on 13th December, 1860. On 5th November 1875, two friends, John Lewis and Arthur Constantine, organized a meeting at the St Leger Hotel in Blackburn to discuss the possibility of establishing a football club in the town. Seventeen men attended the meeting and it was decided to establish the Blackburn Rovers Football Club.

Jack Hargreaves and Fred Hargreaves, who both worked in the legal profession, became important figures at the club. They had both played football for Malvern College and advocated that Blackburn Rovers adopted the quartered shirt design of their school shirts. However, they suggested that the traditional green should be changed to the light blue worn by the Cambridge University football team.

Other players in the team included, Doctor Greenwood and Jimmy Brown. In 1880 the club signed Hugh McIntyre, Fergie Suter and Jimmy Douglas from Scotland. This made them one of the best teams in England.

Hargreaves, who played at wing-half, inside-forward or outside right for his club, won his first international cap for England against Wales on 12th March, 1881. Also in the team was his brother, Fred Hargreaves. England lost the game 1-0. He won his second and last cap against Scotland on 12th March 1881. England embarrassingly lost the game 6-1.

In 1882, Blackburn Rovers became the first provincial team to reach the final of the FA Cup. Their opponents was Old Etonians who had reached the final on five previous occasions. However, Blackburn had gone through the season unbeaten and was expected to become the first northern team to win win the game. Doctor Greenwood was injured the team included five players who had won international caps, John Hargreaves, Jimmy Douglas, Fred Hargreaves, Hugh McIntyre and Jimmy Brown.

John Hargreaves played at left-half. The Old Etonians scored after eight minutes and despite creating a great number of chances, Blackburn was unable to obtain an equalizer in the first-half. Early in the second-half George Avery was seriously injured and Blackburn Rovers was reduced to ten men. Despite good efforts by Jimmy Brown, Jack Hargreaves and John Duckworth, Rovers were unable to score.

Blackburn Rovers also got to the 1884 FA Cup Final. Their opponents were Queens Park, the best team in Scotland. John Hargreaves played at inside right. The Scottish club scored the first goal but Blackburn Rovers won the game with goals from Blackburn lads, James Forrest and Joe Sowerbutts.

John Hargreaves was an amateur player and stopped playing for Blackburn Rovers when it began to rely more and more on professional players.

John Hargreaves was born in Colne, Lancashire in 1924 to Arthur Hargreaves and his wife Margaret (nee Duckworth). The hymn writer Francis Duckworth was his uncle. John Hargreaves attended Grammar School in Skipton and Bootham School in York . He then studied history at Manchester University , where he received his bachelor's degree . He then did his military service from 1943 to 1946. He then continued his studies and received a master's degree in 1948 . Hargreaves was now briefly active in the War Office , but returned to Manchester University, where he taught as a lecturer for the next four years .

From 1952 to 1954 he taught at Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leone . From 1954 he became a lecturer at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland , where he continued his academic career. In 1962 he was appointed professor and in 1985 he retired. In 1971 he taught at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria .

Hargreaves had been married since 1950. The marriage resulted in three children, a son and two daughters. After his retirement he moved to Banchory with his wife .

James Hargreaves

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James Hargreaves, Hargreaves also spelled Hargraves, (baptized January 8, 1721, Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire, England—died April 22, 1778, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire), English inventor of the spinning jenny, the first practical application of multiple spinning by a machine. At the time he devised the machine, he was a poor, uneducated spinner and weaver living at Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire.

About 1764 Hargreaves is said to have conceived the idea for his hand-powered multiple spinning machine when he observed a spinning wheel that had been accidentally overturned by his young daughter Jenny. As the spindle continued to revolve in an upright rather than a horizontal position, Hargreaves reasoned that many spindles could be so turned. He constructed a machine with which one individual could spin several threads at one time. After he began to sell the machines to help support his large family, hand spinners, fearing unemployment, broke into his house and destroyed a number of jennies, causing Hargreaves to move to Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, in 1768. With a partner, Thomas James, he built a small mill in which they used jennies to spin yarn for hosiers. He received a patent for the jenny on July 12, 1770. Until his death, he worked at the mill, which proved moderately successful.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, Senior Editor.

John Hargreaves obituary

When the historian John Hargreaves, who has died aged 91, began teaching university students in Sierra Leone in the 1950s, the influence of 19th-century racialist ideas was still strong. Most Europeans assumed that Africans had no meaningful history of their own the story of the continent was the story of European activities there. Hargreaves showed that those activities in west Africa before the partition of the 1880s actually meant close involvement with African societies, as with the French engagement with the Muslim empire of El Haji Omar in the western Sudan, or with the friendly British association with the sophisticated trading families of the Gold Coast or more fraught relations with the militarily formidable Ashanti kingdom of the interior, both in what is now Ghana.

Three of Hargreaves’s 14 substantial books, Prelude to the Partition of West Africa (1963) and the two volumes of West Africa Partitioned (1974 and 1985), analysed the partition of west Africa and what led up to it. Hargreaves demonstrated that even as European powers became more willing to use the Maxim gun to dominate Africans and assume political control, the actual outcome in particular situations continued to depend on the African-European relationships that had gone before and upon the immediate African responses to European incursions, whether of resistance or negotiation. While it was clear that the situation on the ground was determined by African realities, Hargreaves also showed that some of the impulses of the European powers needed to be seen in a global context. Indeed, the whole process of the scramble for and partition of Africa was an extremely complex one, and Hargreaves came to distrust theories of imperialism as a means of understanding what had happened during the European partition of Africa historical explanation must depend on concrete and detailed evidence.

In West Africa: The Former French States (1967), followed by a volume of illustrative documents, France and West Africa (1969), Hargreaves concentrated on African-French relations from the 17th to the 20th centuries. Whenever collaboration gave way to domination, Africans were often subject to what Hargreaves dubbed “intolerable inequalities”: he had a liberal, even radical, outlook on many social and political questions. Particularly strong was his interest in the descendants of freed slaves in Sierra Leone.

He taught at Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leone (1952-54) and later at Ibadan University in Nigeria (1971), and attracted African postgraduates to Aberdeen University, where he became a lecturer in 1954 and professor in 1962. The research that those students produced on their own peoples contributed greatly to the local and international recognition of African history as an important subject of study.

In the years following his retirement in 1985, Hargreaves turned his attention to the process of decolonisation. Just as with the beginnings of European rule, African-European relations were the key issue. Initial work on west Africa was extended to cover the whole continent in his Decolonization in Africa (1988). Here the interests of Africans, especially the nationalists, were balanced against the local concerns as well as the global activities and anxieties of the colonial rulers. He also championed and contributed to historical studies to mark the 500th anniversary of Aberdeen University’s founding in 1495.

John was born in Colne, Lancashire, to Arthur Hargreaves, a cotton merchant, and his wife, Margaret (nee Duckworth). Her father was Caleb Duckworth, a noted inventor in the fruit-processing industry, and her uncle Francis Duckworth the Methodist hymn writer. From Skipton grammar school and Bootham school, York, John went to Manchester University, where he gained a history degree at the age of 19. Active second world war service (1943-46) followed, and in 1948 he was awarded a master’s degree, went briefly to the War Office as a civil servant and returned to Manchester as a lecturer for four years.

In 1950 he married Sheila Wilks. After his retirement, the couple moved to Banchory on Deeside and John found slightly more time for other interests: hill-walking, theatre, English literature, writing poetry and various community and church activities. He and Sheila, African fashion, always provided warm hospitality for colleagues, friends and visitors.

Sheila survives him, along with their son, two daughters, six grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.

John Desmond Hargreaves, historian, born 25 January 1924 died 14 February 2015

Opposition to the Spinning Jenny

After inventing the spinning jenny, Hargreaves built a number of models and started to sell them to locals. However, because each machine was capable of doing the work of eight people, spinners became angry about the competition. In 1768, a group of spinners broke into Hargreaves' house and destroyed his machines to prevent them from taking away their work. Increased production per person eventually led to the drop in prices paid for the thread.

Opposition to the machine caused Hargreaves to relocate to Nottingham, where he found a business partner in Thomas James. They set up a small mill to supply hosiery makers with suitable yarn. On July 12, 1770, Hargreaves took out a patent on a 16-spindle spinning jenny and soon after sent notice to others who were using copies of the machine that he would pursue legal action against them.

The manufacturers he went after offered him a sum of 3,000 pounds to drop the case, less than half of Hargreaves' requested 7,000 pounds. Hargreaves ultimately lost the case when it turned out that the courts had rejected his patent application. He had produced and sold too many of his machines before filing for the patent. The technology was already out there and being used in many machines.

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Chartism: A Global History and other essays, Richard Brown, Authoring History, 2016, 324 pp., £10.96, paper, ISBN 1534981438

This volume of essays written partly, the author reveals, as a response to a student enquiring in 2003 ‘What impact did Chartism have on the rest of the world brings the word total of the series of six volumes of which it forms part to 850,000 words. Few if any individual historians have ranged so widely and encompassed so many dimensions of the Chartist movement than Richard Brown. Moreover, like so much of Richard Brown’s work it combines a pedagogic enthusiasm with cutting edge research engaging particularly with the global resonance of the movement, an aspect of Chartism that had not previously been ‘the subject of serious consideration’. The author revisits and develops in the opening chapters of this volume of essays his previous consideration of ‘the nature of Chartism as it looked outwards to Britain’s colonies’, exploring how Chartist ideas spread across the globe. It also considers how and to what extent Chartism influenced ‘the critique of Britain’s place in the world and particularly how far Chartists and Chartist ideas influenced the definition of colonial rule within and by white-settler colonies in opposition to colonial rule as seen from the Colonial Office. It provides extended, detailed studies of Chartism and North America and Chartism in Australia, whilst recognising that the three decades after 1830 saw widespread rebellion against British colonial rule from the Canadas to New Zealand and from India to South Africa and Australia where there was ‘an upsurge of anti-colonial protest as indigenous peoples and colonial settlers sought to assert their “rights” against the overweening authority of coercive and largely unaccountable colonial states’.

A History of Halifax by John Hargreaves

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Watch the video: Hargreaves farewells Assembly (August 2022).