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Comprehensive Education

Comprehensive Education


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The 1944 Education Act provided universal free schooling in three different types of schools; grammar, secondary modern and technical. Rab Butler hoped that these schools would cater for the different academic levels of children. Entry to these schools was based on the 11+ examination.

Many educational experts were opposed to the idea of selection at eleven and argued that secondary modern schools were providing a second-class education. Some Local Education Authorities experimented with the idea of creating comprehensive schools designed to provide an education for children of all abilities. Although initially hostile to these schools, by the 1960s the Labour Party supported plans to phase out grammar schools.

Following the 1964 General Election, the new Labour Government instructed all local authorities to prepare plans for the creation of comprehensive schools, either by amalgamation or the building of new schools. This policy was also accepted by Conservative governments and by 1990 the majority of grammar schools had been turned into comprehensives or had become independent.


You will study physical, cultural, economic, political, and social geography while focusing on world history, U.S. history and European history. Additional courses in education and methods will teach you how to bring the excitement of history and geography into secondary classrooms.

Successful completion of this course of study, in the context of other program requirements, qualifies you for recommendation for the Michigan Department of Education Secondary History (CC) and Geography (CB) endorsements. This indicates that you are able to teach History and Geography in 6-12th grade classrooms. As a student in this program you may seek advising, apply for scholarships, and participate in activities both in the Department of History & Philosophy in the College of Arts and Sciences, the home department for this major, and in the Department of Teacher Education in the College of Education, home of the professional teaching courses.


Comprehensive Sexuality Education

a well funded movement in the global public school system to impose an immoral worldview on children throughout the nation. It is not about preventing disease, but a social movement to change society through corrupting and sexualizing children. Students as young as 5 are exposed to the most explicit and expansive forms of pleasure-based sex education. Instruction includes the right to sexual gratification, pleasure, exploration and experimentation. Masturbation, anal sex, oral sex, and abortion are taught and promoted. These concepts are not restricted to health class. It begins much earlier than 5th grade. Comprehensive Sexuality Education is an attempt to rid society of all Judeo-Christian influence by mocking its values and eliminating taboos and restrictions. Parents are minimized as the primary source to teach their children values. Children are taught from an early age to make their own sexual choices and decide how much risk they are willing to take. No judgements are allowed. The bottom line is Comprehensive Sexuality Education is not about preventing disease or pregnancy, it&rsquos about promoting sexual license without responsibility or consequence.

There are NO national standards or guidelines for sex education. Any organization or standards guide that uses &ldquoNational&rdquo or &ldquoUnited States&rdquo in their name is by title only.

In most states, parents have a LEGAL RIGHT to be informed and give permission when their children are going to receive sexual information at school. School districts have and are continuing to introduce legislation to strip parents of this right by making it such that children must &lsquoopt-out&rsquo rather than opting in. Trustees argue that, because a very few parents may not be competent, ALL parents must lose the legal right to be informed and give permission for students to be exposed to sexual content. While not all parents will be involved with their child&rsquos sex ed in this way, ALL parents deserve the invitation and opportunity. It is their LEGAL RIGHT.

The next step (as seen in Massachusetts and New York) is to make it illegal for parents to opt-out at all. In these states, it is mandatory that public school students receive specific sex education lessons beginning in kindergarten. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is threatening school districts with lawsuits unless ACLU employees are allowed to oversee sex ed curriculum changes.

Language must be carefully analyzed to understand the real intent because they use a lot of double speak to disguise the true meanings of words so parents are more accepting of the agenda. Examples include:

  • &ldquoAge Appropriate&rdquo &ndash Children are sexual beings from birth so they should be taught about sexual pleasure from an early age.
  • &ldquoFear Based&rdquo &ndash Teaching real risk and consequences associated with sexual behavior puts unwanted fear in sexuality.
  • &ldquoHate&rdquo &ndash If you do not accept and endorse other sexual beliefs, you &ldquohate&rdquo them.
  • &ldquoInclusive&rdquo &ndash All forms of sexual exploration, lifestyles, and re-defined &ldquofamily&rdquo structures are equal and good.
  • &ldquoMedically Accurate&rdquo &ndash Detailed instruction on how to perform sexual acts and use contraceptives. This is one of the most damaging deceptions because medical risks and consequences are minimized if taught at all.
  • &ldquoNegotiation&rdquo &ndash To persuade to get what you want. Used to teach sexuality at an early age under the guise of prevention and safety (also used to help you get more sex). Anything is ok as long as both parties give &ldquoconsent.&rdquo
  • &ldquoShame Based&rdquo &ndash This title is used to discredit any form of sex education that is taught with the risks and consequences clearly defined. (Note: Activists instead wish to promote that there is no shame or guilt in any form of sexual activity or deviation regardless of age.)
    &ldquoSafer Sex&rdquo &ndash Oral sex, mutual masterbation, erotic massage, or vaginal or anal sex with a condom.

History of how we got to Schools wanting to Sexualize our children in Schools:

First, we must consider the secret agenda of a cult society formed in 1776 called the Illuminati. Their goals were revealed by John Robison who was recruited into the Order and wrote a book warning the people of its designs after learning it had a Satanic goals. Those objectives are as follows:

    of all ordered governments,
  1. Abolition of private property,
  2. Abolition of inheritance,
  3. Abolition of patriotism,
  4. Abolition of the family,
  5. Abolition of religion, and
  6. Creation of a world government.

The ultimate despotic purpose of the Illuminati Order was kept secret. Only by degrees &mdash going from the lower &ldquoNursery&rdquo degrees of Preparation, Novice, Minerval and Illuminatus Minor to the higher &ldquoMysteries&rdquo of Priest, Regent, Magus, and Rex &mdash could the initiated learn of the true mysteries and purposes of the Order. And each step of the way was very carefully plotted and planned by Weishaupt and his colleagues, so that the squeamish and gullible never rose higher than the lowest degrees, while the bold, ruthless and cynical, those ready and willing to dispense with religion, morality, patriotism and any other hindrances, rose to the top.

It was through this process of selection and careful inculcation that Weishaupt, in a mere decade, was able to gather into his Order the cleverest and most diabolical minds in Europe. The true purpose of the Order was to rule the world. To achieve this it was necessary for the Order to destroy all religions, overthrow all governments, and abolish private property. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to convince enough people that religion, governments, and private property were the real obstacles to human happiness. These were major obstacles in the Unites States where these were recognized as God-given rights and taught from youth. Thus, it was necessary to formulate a plan to corrupt and indoctrinate the youth from an early age with a different ideology.

Although there were signs of liberalizing schools, particularly universities where their society member professors had greater influence, it was not until the 20th century that we gain more insight into the plans to achieve a world dictatorship.

In 1903, &lsquoThe Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion&rsquo were printed after having been purchased by Mademoiselle Justine Glinka, the daughter of a Russian general who was living in Paris and was made aware of the secret document. She purchased it, it was translated and later printed. Protocol 9 explains&rdquo

We have fooled, bemused and corrupted the youth of the goyim, by rearing them in principles and theories which are known to us to be false, although it is by us they have been inculcated.

In order to effect the destruction of all collective forces, except ours, we shall emasculate the first stage of collectivism &ndash the universities, by re-educating them in a new direction. Their officials and professors will be prepared for their business by detailed secret programs of action from which they will not with immunity diverge, not by one iota. They will be appointed with especial precaution, and will be so placed as to be wholly dependent on the Government.

&hellipWe must introduce into their education all those principles which have so brilliantly broken up their order. But when we are in power we shall remove every kind of disturbing subject from the course of education and shall make, out of the youth, obedient children of authority, loving him who rules as the support and hope of peace and quiet.

&hellipWe shall erase from the memory of men all facts of previous centuries which are undesirable to us, and leave only those which depict all the errors of the government of the goyim. The study of practical life of the obligations of order of the relations of people one to another of avoiding bad and selfish examples, which spread the infection of evil, and similar questions of an educative nature, will stand in the forefront of the teaching program

&hellip theories will be raised by us to the stage of a dogma of faith, as a traditional stage towards our faith.

In a word, knowing, by the experience of many centuries, that people live and are guided by ideas that these ideas are imbibed by people only by the aid of education, provided with equal success for all ages of growth but of course, by varying methods we shall swallow up and confiscate to our own use, the last scintilla of independence of thought, which we have for long past been directing towards subjects and ideas useful for us. The system of bridling thought is already at work in the so-called system of teaching by object lessons, the purpose of which is to turn the goyim into unthinking submissive brutes, waiting for things to be presented before their eyes in order to form an idea of them.

In 1914, at the annual meeting of the National Education Association, the following declaration was made,

We view with alarm the activity of the Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations&mdashagencies not in any way responsible to the people&mdashin their efforts to control the policies of our State educational institutions, to fashion after their conception and to standardize our courses of study, and to surround the institutions with conditions which menace true academic freedom and defeat the primary purpose of democracy as heretofore preserved inviolate in our common schools, normal schools, and universities.

In 1916, following 4 years of research, the Walsh Committee final report contained tens of thousands of pages of testimony from a wide range of witnesses, including scores of ordinary workers, and the titans of capitalism, including Daniel Guggenheim, George Walbridge Perkins, Sr. (of U.S. Steel), Henry Ford, and Andrew Carnegie. During the tenure of this committee, tax-exempt foundations were also examined. Partial findings were that,

&ldquoA number of witnesses testified that colleges had surrendered their religious identifications in order to comply with foundation requirements to receive grants&hellip&ldquo

In 1917, during the crucial years of the school changeover from academic institution to behavioral modification instrument, the radical nature of the metamorphosis caught the attention of a few national politicians who spoke out, but could never muster enough strength for effective opposition. In the Congressional Record of January 26, 1917, for instance, Senator Chamberlain of Oregon entered these words:

They are moving with military precision all along the line to get control of the education of the children of the land.

Senator Poindexter of Washington followed, saying:

The cult of Rockefeller, the cult of Carnegie&hellipas much to be guarded against in the educational system of this country as a particular religious sect.

And in the same issue, Senator Kenyon of Iowa related:

There are certain colleges that have sought endowments, and the agent of the Rockefeller Foundation or the General Education Board had gone out and examined the curriculum of these colleges and compelled certain changes&hellip.

It seems to me one of the most dangerous things that can go on in a republic is to have an institution of this power apparently trying to shape and mold the thought of the young people of this country.

Senator Works of California added:

These people&hellipare attempting to get control of the whole educational work of the country.

In the 1940s and 50s, Alfred Kinsey pioneered sex research. [lightbox full=&rdquohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JtElwdfCUTc&rdquo]He focused on gathering his data from pedophiles, prisoners and prostitutes.[/lightbox] Although his research has been completely discredited, his findings continue to influence public policy and educational curriculum today.

&ldquoIt is difficult to understand why a child, except for its cultural conditioning, should be disturbed at having its genitalia touched, or disturbed at seeing the genitalia of other persons, or disturbed at even more specific sexual contacts&hellip Adult contacts&hellip are not likely to do the child any appreciable harm if the child&rsquos parents do not become disturbed.&rdquo

Kinsey, Alfred C. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Page 121

Dr. Mary Calderone was a co-founder of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS). She was on a crusade to change sex education. She insisted that there was too much focus on unwanted
pregnancy and diseases and that the real problem was that society is puritanical and repressed. Calderone wanted to change the discussion from biological facts to an open celebration of sexuality without limits.

&ldquoChildren are sexual and think sexual thoughts and do sexual things. Parents must accept and honor their child&rsquos erotic potential.

Mary Calderone Grossman, Miriam, &ldquoA Brief History of Sex Ed .&rdquo World congress.org July 2013. Web

Wardell Pomeroy was a c olleague of Alfred Kinsey and Former President of SIECUS. He said:

&ldquoWe find many beautiful and mutually satisfying [sexual] relationships between fathers and daughters. These may be transient or ongoing, but they have no harmful effects &hellip Incest between adults and younger children can also prove to be a satisfying and enriching experience &hellip When there is a mutual and unselfish concern for the other person, rather than a feeling of possessiveness and a selfish concern with one&rsquos own sexual gratification, then incestuous relationships can and do work out well. Incest can be a satisfying, non-threatening, and even an enriching emotional experience, as I said earlier.&rdquo

Wardell Pomeroy- Kinsey, Sex & Fraud , (1990) page 4, quoting a Pomeroy interview in Penthouse Forum Variations, 1977, pp. 86-90.

On November 1, 1953, The Reece Committee was formed and the final report released 6 months later after efforts by some democrats to frustrate and end the investigation were somewhat successful. The Reece Committee was a Congressional investigation of major tax-exempt foundations linked to the international money cartel centered on Rockefeller, Ford, Carnegie, and Guggenheim foundations but the committee was unable to attract any attention from the media. Among those secondary foundations investigated were the National Education Association, the John Dewey Society, the United Nations Association and the Council on Foreign Relations . The Rockefeller Foundation was financing Dr. Alfred Kinsey&rsquos studies on sexual behavior through the National Research Council to produce his series of untrue and unscientific reports promoting sexual freedom (promiscuity). The hearings were held for two weeks. Then, without warning, the committee stopped them.

In 1955, Dr. John Money, an early leader of the incest lobby and the transgender movement, introduced the radical concept that maleness and femaleness is a feeling, separate from anatomy and chromosomes. He was convinced we are born without gender, then conditioned by society to identify either male or female. Money coined the terms &ldquoGender Role&rdquo and &ldquoGender Identity.&rdquo He said,

&ldquo(Pedophilia is) a love affair between an agediscrepant couple.&rdquo &ldquoFor a child to have a sexual experience with a relative [is] not necessarily a problem.&rdquo

Rosenthal, Marth. Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society . 2013

Alan Frank Guttmacher was the f ormer President of Planned Parenthood and Former Vice-President of the National Eugenics Society.

&ldquoThe only avenue the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its allies could travel to win the battle for abortion on demand is through sex education.&rdquo &ndash Alan Frank Guttmacher

&ndash Murphy, Lynn K. &ldquoSex Education and Sex-Related Behavior.&rdquo Family Planning Perspectives 18.4 (1986) Web.

In 1961, Congressman John M. Ashbrook of Ohio expressed his concern over the radical shift in the direction of education before the U.S. House of Representatives in a speech he delivered entitled &ldquoThe Myth of Federal Aid to Education without Control.&rdquo With extraordinary foresight, John Ashbrook warned that: &lsquoIn the report A Federal Education Agency for the Future we find the vehicle for Federal domination of our schools. It is a real and present danger.&hellip The battle lines are now being drawn between those who seek control and uniformity of our local schools and those who oppose this further bureaucratic centralization in Washington. It is my sincere hope that the Congress will respond to this challenge and defeat the aid to education bills which will implement the goals incorporated in A Federal Education Agency for the Future.&rsquo

In 1962 prayer in school was ruled unconstitutional and in 1963, reading the Bible in school was ruled unconstitutional. Also in 1963, the House of Representative and later the Senate began reviewing a document entitled &ldquoCommunist Goals for Taking Over America.&rdquo Number 17 on the list: &ldquoGet control of the schools. Use them as transmission belts for socialism and current Communist propaganda . Soften the curriculum. Get control of teachers&rsquo associations. Put the party line in textbooks.&rdquo

Hugh Heffner donated the seed money to fund SEICUS in 1964.

&ldquoIn my own words, I played some significant part in changing the social-sexual values of our time. I had a lot of fun in the process.&rdquo

&ldquoThe two Kinsey books opened the door to communication and conversation about human sexuality. I applauded what I believed to be true it was a confirmation of my convictions, so I applauded it and welcomed it as the arrival of the cavalry. The truth was finally being expressed.&rdquo

Hugh Heffner, founder of Playboy

In 1968, the false theory of evolution was ruled Constitutional by the Supreme Court and and became the dominant teaching of creation in public schools while creationism and intelligent design were eventually ruled unconstitutional in 1987 simply with its affiliation with the Judeo-Christian faith, thus an unconstitutional establishment of religion.

The efforts of these sexual crusaders came together and created SIECUS, The Sexuality Information & Education Council of the United States. It is the group that wrote the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education. This group includes many authors from Planned Parenthood and other sexual activists. It is the SIECUS guidelines that are being forced upon schools across the nation. SIECUS started the National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education (NCSSE). NCSSE consists of over 140 organizations that work together to get &ldquoComprehensive Sex Ed&rdquo into school. Their large numbers and resources are the reason they have been able to push through sexuality education at such an alarming rate.

Some of the organizations pushing to teach Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Public Schools include:

  • Planned Parenthood
  • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
  • Advocates for Youth
  • Guttmacher Institute
  • The Human Rights Campaign
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • Healthy Teen Network
  • Secular Coalition for America
  • The American College of Sexologists International
  • Unitarian Universalists Association
  • The Kinsey Institute
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America
  • Gay, Lesbian, and Strait Education Network


What Will You Learn in the Master’s in History Education Online?

Liberty’s Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction – History online degree program features the foundational principles of education and curriculum as well as specialized knowledge in history instruction. An overview of the teaching and learning process is explored in relation to learning theory, individual differences, motivation, exceptionality, and teaching methodology. Research on human development, data collection and assessment, and application of analysis in school settings will prepare you to understand and meet the needs of all learning styles.

The courses in our online curriculum and instruction degree will provide a comprehensive examination of the political, economic, religious, cultural, and military factors that influenced historical events. This multi-faceted view will help you discover how all history is interconnected and give you tools for communicating that complexity to your students.


Diversity in Instructional Media: The End of the Classroom?

Technology permeates our daily lives, drives our economy, and increasingly, delivers our higher education. Distance education has grown by leaps and bounds since the first online university was accredited in 1991, growing at an average annual rate of 40 percent through 2002. The Boston-based market research firm Eduventures has estimated that by 2008, one in ten college students will be enrolled in an online degree program.

The impact of online media on higher education cannot be overstated. The online delivery format has made higher education accessible to a population for whom campus-based learning is not an option. Working adults, stay-at-home moms, and rural and international students have unprecedented access to college programs through the Internet. The average age of college students has soared to 36. About 30 percent of college students participate in online education.

The Virtual Classroom

The virtual classroom uses a diverse array of instructional methods and media to facilitate learning, including ‘live’ videoconferencing, satellite broadcasts, interactive multimedia presentations, ongoing chat room discussions, and computer exercises and tutorials. Students have a range of visual and auditory learning materials at their fingertips, with 24-hour access to instructional videos and remote databases for research.

The U.S. Distance Learning Association defines online education as “The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of distance learning.”

Virtual learning has added new diversity to when, where, and how we learn. As a supplement to face-to-face campus instruction, interactive online media allows instructors to accommodate a wider range of learning styles. College education is shifting from a passive listening experience to active, project-based learning facilitated by interactive technology.

“The professor is moving from the sage on the stage to the guide on the side.” –Dr. Joe Boland, director of Georgia Tech’s Center for Distance Learning.

The new diversity in educational media parallels developments in the global information economy. Many argue that students who learn online are more adept at conducting business in virtual space. They learn to “access, analyze, process, and communicate information use information technology tools work with people from different cultural backgrounds and engage in continuous, self-directed learning,” according to one report. These are crucial skills for a workforce that routinely collaborates with people in remote locations via the Internet for whom information technology is a job requirement and who rely on continuous education to stay up to speed.


Comprehensive Assessment: A Short History

In the early 20th century, public education embraced a number of innovations that were grounded in the best thinking of the day. Many of these newfangled ideas focused on efficiency, with the goal of mass-producing students who could read, write, and compute at a basic level. As the book How People Learn explains:

It was only logical to develop standardized tests that could scientifically measure the “product” rolling off this educational assembly line.

Fast-forward to the 21st century, and basic literacy, numeracy, and content knowledge are no longer enough. According to the editors of How People Learn, and many other experts, if students are going to be able to negotiate the complexities of contemporary life, they need to be able to think and read critically, express themselves using digital tools, and solve complex problems. It’s not enough for students to be able to recall what they have memorized they need to be able to transfer what they have learned to new situations. This calls for applying the best thinking of today -- from fields such as cognitive science and educational technology -- to update our approaches for teaching and assessing what students know and are able to do.

Comprehensive Means Everything

Assessment is an umbrella term. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, authors of Understanding by Design, explain that it includes many methods of gathering evidence about student learning. These include observations and dialogues, traditional quizzes and tests, performance tasks and projects, as well as students’ reflections on their own learning.

Some methods of evidence-gathering happen while learning is still unfolding (formative assessment), helping to inform and adjust instruction. Other methods occur at the end of a course or unit of study (summative assessment) and assess whether students have reached the intended learning goals. Some methods are informal while others come with high stakes. Yet all kinds of assessment play a role in shaping understanding. Indeed, in Understanding by Design, Wiggins and McTighe state: “Understanding can be developed and evoked only through multiple methods of ongoing assessment, with far greater attention paid to formative (and performance) assessment than is typical.”

When used effectively, assessment can facilitate high levels of student achievement, according to the authors of Knowing What Students Know. Assessment helps students learn and succeed in school “by making as clear as possible to them, their teachers, and other education stakeholders the nature of their accomplishments and the progress of their learning.”

Comprehensive assessment entails the whole system of assessing student understanding as a mechanism to improve teaching and learning. Teachers use multiple strategies to gather and share information about what students understand and to identify where they may be struggling. Well-designed assessments help students chart their own progress toward learning goals and help teachers modify instruction as needed.

Authentic assessment (or performance assessment) asks students to demonstrate their learning by making a product or by doing a task, performance, or exhibition to show what they know and can do. Authentic assessment mirrors what happens in the real world when scientists, architects, musicians, and others apply their discipline-based knowledge to solve authentic challenges. In project-based learning, projects typically conclude with an authentic performance or presentation. Typically, teachers score authentic assessments according to rubrics that define quality work or proficiency according to various categories (such as mastery of key content, communication skills, teamwork, and so forth).

Blended assessment is a combination of traditional and technology-based assessments, for instance, combining paper-and-pencil tasks, online tasks, and peer assessment.


Inside the Program

Study abroad provides invaluable experience

Sam Belsan, Secondary History major, was among the first students at WSU to participate in the Teach in Paraguay program. The summer study abroad program allows education majors to gain experience student teaching in Paraguay. While there, Sam was also able to try Paraguayan delicacies, meet with government officials and explore the ruins. Sam shared, "The students at Colegio del Sol also made my time in Ciudad del Este remarkable. They embraced me as a person who could help them grow in their understanding of English and I embraced them as people who could help me grow in my understanding of Paraguay."

Curriculum

The four-year history / science program starts with two years of general education followed by two years of teacher education. The curriculum was developed in collaboration by university faculty and P-12 practitioners and includes teaching internships.

Careers

A bachelor’s degree from Wichita State’s College of Applied Studies will give you the knowledge, skills and confidence to make a positive impact in the classroom—and prepares you to pursue an advanced education degree.


Comprehensive schools: the history

Richard Pring and Geoffrey Walford explain why they think comprehensives are worth fighting for.

The idea for the comprehensive school, where children of all backgrounds and abilities would be educated in a single school, goes back to the 1920s. "The idea was there before the war," says Brian Simon, emeritus professor of education at Leicester University. "It had strong proponents. For instance, the London County Council took a decision to go comprehensive when they could back in 1936.''

After the second world war momentum for change grew as parents increasingly revolted against the 11-plus examination. The new professionals had greater expectations for education than could be achieved under a system that divided children at the age of 11, sending one lot to grammar schools from which they could continue to university and beyond, and others to secondary moderns from whence opportunities were severely limited. There was particular concern about the reliability of the 11-plus as a mechanism for categorising children.

At the same time there was increasing criticism of the grammar schools. Working-class children and their parents were alienated by the ethos of such schools. Consciousness was growing about the enormous wastage of ability among working-class children, particularly girls, in the school system.

There were alternatives to comprehensive education, according to Simon, but the 1950s Conservative government could not see them. If they had expanded the grammar schools as the Germans did, they might have headed off the revolt. Similarly, if they had beefed up the secondary moderns, allowing their pupils to take exams, they might have spiked the reform movement. "But they did neither, and they let this frustration build up," says Simon.

So, when Labour got into power, and Education Secretary Anthony Crosland asked local authorities to submit plans for going comprehensive, the bulk of councils decided to do so.

The pace of change was rapid. In the ten years between 1965 and 1975, virtually all state secondary schools in Wales and Scotland went comprehensive. In England the figure was about 90 per cent. And the swing took place under Labour and Conservative governments, with the pace of change being quicker under the Tories.

Decisions by councils to end selection were often accompanied by furious debate. "All that discussion had quite a profound effect on people's thinking about the structure of education," says Simon. "That's why it's been impossible for any government since then to reverse the engines directly." Only a few authorities resisted change: Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Kent, among others, still have grammar schools and other schools that are secondary moderns in all but name.

Today most secondary school students are taught within a comprehensive school system. But it is increasingly threatened, if not directly, then by surreptitious selection and by fragmentation.

This, then, is the right time to address once again the principles which inspired comprehensive schools 30 years ago. Was the change worthwhile? What has been gained and lost? Above all, what are the lessons to be learnt from the experience so that schools might provide the right kind of education for all young people irrespective of ability or aptitude, social class or money, religion or race?

Comprehensive schools aimed to provide educational opportunities for all children, not to divide them at an early age into different "opportunity groups" on the basis of a questionable instrument of selection.

But the reforms were about much more than individual opportunity. They arose, too, from a concern about the link between schools and the wider community. There is much more to personal and social development than academic success. Can we have a cohesive society where the members of that society are separated at so early an age? Ought we not to recognise the wide range of talent and forms of intelligence, and organise education accordingly?

The arguments for a comprehensive system of schooling should not be lost on higher education those arguments are now exerting an influence on the education and training system after 18 - the openness to a much wider range of talent, aspiration and approaches to learning.

A series of 14 lectures at Oxford, beginning later this month, will address these issues. What draws us together is a determination not to see the immense improvements of the past 30 years lost, as indeed they are in danger of being, but rather to show how the principles underpinning the comprehensive system can be reapplied in very different circumstances.


The World Starts With Me

Sometimes it is hard to find an adult who can deliver effective sex education. So Rutgers has created a computer-based curriculum in sexuality education that can be followed by 12 to 19 year olds with or without a teacher, improving their IT skills as they learn. The World Starts With Me resources are used in thirteen countries across Africa and Asia. This curriculum goes beyond sexuality and relationships, including lessons on gender equality and having goals for the future.

I learned a lot from The World Starts With Me, but most importantly I learned about puberty and body changes. I understand my body better and feel more relaxed and confident.


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