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Egyptian Pyramids - Facts, Use and Construction

Egyptian Pyramids - Facts, Use and Construction



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Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza—are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society. Though pyramids were built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century A.D., the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and continued until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich and glorious past.

The Pharaoh in Egyptian Society

During the third and fourth dynasties of the Old Kingdom, Egypt enjoyed tremendous economic prosperity and stability. Kings held a unique position in Egyptian society. Somewhere in between human and divine, they were believed to have been chosen by the gods themselves to serve as their mediators on earth. Because of this, it was in everyone’s interest to keep the king’s majesty intact even after his death, when he was believed to become Osiris, god of the dead. The new pharaoh, in turn, became Horus, the falcon-god who served as protector of the sun god, Ra.

Ancient Egyptians believed that when the king died, part of his spirit (known as “ka”) remained with his body. To properly care for his spirit, the corpse was mummified, and everything the king would need in the afterlife was buried with him, including gold vessels, food, furniture and other offerings. The pyramids became the focus of a cult of the dead king that was supposed to continue well after his death. Their riches would provide not only for him, but also for the relatives, officials and priests who were buried near him.

The Early Pyramids

From the beginning of the Dynastic Era (2950 B.C.), royal tombs were carved into rock and covered with flat-roofed rectangular structures known as “mastabas,” which were precursors to the pyramids. The oldest known pyramid in Egypt was built around 2630 B.C. at Saqqara, for the third dynasty’s King Djoser. Known as the Step Pyramid, it began as a traditional mastaba but grew into something much more ambitious. As the story goes, the pyramid’s architect was Imhotep, a priest and healer who some 1,400 years later would be deified as the patron saint of scribes and physicians. Over the course of Djoser’s nearly 20-year reign, pyramid builders assembled six stepped layers of stone (as opposed to mud-brick, like most earlier tombs) that eventually reached a height of 204 feet (62 meters); it was the tallest building of its time. The Step Pyramid was surrounded by a complex of courtyards, temples and shrines where Djoser could enjoy his afterlife.

After Djoser, the stepped pyramid became the norm for royal burials, although none of those planned by his dynastic successors were completed (probably due to their relatively short reigns). The earliest tomb constructed as a “true” (smooth-sided, not stepped) pyramid was the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, one of three burial structures built for the first king of the fourth dynasty, Sneferu (2613-2589 B.C.) It was named for the color of the limestone blocks used to construct the pyramid’s core.

The Great Pyramids of Giza

No pyramids are more celebrated than the Great Pyramids of Giza, located on a plateau on the west bank of the Nile River, on the outskirts of modern-day Cairo. The oldest and largest of the three pyramids at Giza, known as the Great Pyramid, is the only surviving structure out of the famed Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was built for Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops, in Greek), Sneferu’s successor and the second of the eight kings of the fourth dynasty. Though Khufu reigned for 23 years (2589-2566 B.C.), relatively little is known of his reign beyond the grandeur of his pyramid. The sides of the pyramid’s base average 755.75 feet (230 meters), and its original height was 481.4 feet (147 meters), making it the largest pyramid in the world. Three small pyramids built for Khufu’s queens are lined up next to the Great Pyramid, and a tomb was found nearby containing the empty sarcophagus of his mother, Queen Hetepheres. Like other pyramids, Khufu’s is surrounded by rows of mastabas, where relatives or officials of the king were buried to accompany and support him in the afterlife.

The middle pyramid at Giza was built for Khufu’s son Pharaoh Khafre (2558-2532 B.C). The Pyramid of Khafre is the second tallest pyramid at Giza and contains Pharaoh Khafre’s tomb. A unique feature built inside Khafre’s pyramid complex was the Great Sphinx, a guardian statue carved in limestone with the head of a man and the body of a lion. It was the largest statue in the ancient world, measuring 240 feet long and 66 feet high. In the 18th dynasty (c. 1500 B.C.) the Great Sphinx would come to be worshiped itself, as the image of a local form of the god Horus. The southernmost pyramid at Giza was built for Khafre’s son Menkaure (2532-2503 B.C.). It is the shortest of the three pyramids (218 feet) and is a precursor of the smaller pyramids that would be constructed during the fifth and sixth dynasties.

Who Built The Pyramids?

Though some popular versions of history held that the pyramids were built by slaves or foreigners forced into labor, skeletons excavated from the area show that the workers were probably native Egyptian agricultural laborers who worked on the pyramids during the time of year when the Nile River flooded much of the land nearby. Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone (averaging about 2.5 tons each) had to be cut, transported and assembled to build Khufu’s Great Pyramid. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that it took 20 years to build and required the labor of 100,000 men, but later archaeological evidence suggests that the workforce might actually have been around 20,000.

The End of the Pyramid Era

Pyramids continued to be built throughout the fifth and sixth dynasties, but the general quality and scale of their construction declined over this period, along with the power and wealth of the kings themselves. In the later Old Kingdom pyramids, beginning with that of King Unas (2375-2345 B.C), pyramid builders began to inscribe written accounts of events in the king’s reign on the walls of the burial chamber and the rest of the pyramid’s interior. Known as pyramid texts, these are the earliest significant religious compositions known from ancient Egypt.

The last of the great pyramid builders was Pepy II (2278-2184 B.C.), the second king of the sixth dynasty, who came to power as a young boy and ruled for 94 years. By the time of his rule, Old Kingdom prosperity was dwindling, and the pharaoh had lost some of his quasi-divine status as the power of non-royal administrative officials grew. Pepy II’s pyramid, built at Saqqara and completed some 30 years into his reign, was much shorter (172 feet) than others of the Old Kingdom. With Pepy’s death, the kingdom and strong central government virtually collapsed, and Egypt entered a turbulent phase known as the First Intermediate Period. Later kings, of the 12th dynasty, would return to pyramid building during the so-called Middle Kingdom phase, but it was never on the same scale as the Great Pyramids.

The Pyramids Today

Tomb robbers and other vandals in both ancient and modern times removed most of the bodies and funeral goods from Egypt’s pyramids and plundered their exteriors as well. Stripped of most of their smooth white limestone coverings, the Great Pyramids no longer reach their original heights; Khufu’s, for example, measures only 451 feet high. Nonetheless, millions of people continue to visit the pyramids each year, drawn by their towering grandeur and the enduring allure of Egypt’s rich and glorious past.


Mysteries Of Egypt: How Were The Pyramids Of Egypt Built?

A pyramid is a monumental structure with either a square or triangular base whose sloping sides meet in a point at the top. The most famous are the Egyptian pyramids, most of which were built of stone and used as a royal tomb. Most of the Egyptian pyramids were constructed during the periods of the Old and Middle Kingdoms as a final resting place for the Pharaoh and their spouses.


1) The functions of pyramids

Pyramids are today as much the reference symbols of ancient Egypt as they are of modern Egypt.

Nevertheless, during the course of Egyptian civilization, the pyramids were much more than that: their role was to authorize the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, the pharaohs, to lead splendid and uninterrupted lives in the Afterlife alongside the gods.

So let's look at the two main roles of the pyramids.

A) Their role linked to Egyptian mythology

According to Egyptian mythology, life after death takes place in three locations. These locations are: the Underworld (below the surface of the earth), the Afterlife (the paradise of normal Egyptians located on an island far from Egypt) and in the Celestial World (the world of the gods). Pharaohs aspire to reach the Celestial World with the aim of living in joy and prosperity alongside the gods.

Thus, in a somewhat counter-intuitive way, the pyramids are a means for pharaohs to ascend to join the Sun god Ra and the other gods in the heavens after their earthly deaths.

For this purpose, the very shape of these monuments (an inverted pyramid-shaped funnel with an opening towards the top) allows the soul of the pharaoh to come out of his body and concentrate in a single point to ascend little by little towards the sky.

In addition, to ensure that the pharaoh would be well received in his "next life", many valuables were placed in the pyramids. Most of these objects were intended to be useful to the pharaoh in his second life. Thus, it was not uncommon to find objects such as beds, chairs and even boats (having the function of allowing the pharaoh to navigate in the heavens alongside Ra) placed in the different rooms of the pyramid.

Yet, functional objects were not enough: the pyramids also contained objects of inestimable value that a pharaoh would have to offer to the gods in order to reign at their side. Jewelry, masks, sarcophagi and statues of luxurious deities were stored in the various funerary chambers of the pyramid, forming a veritable treasure trove.

Of course, the Egyptians quickly understood that this wealth would quickly attract tomb robbers who would not hesitate to desecrate the pyramids of their owners for the sake of gain. This brings us to the second role of the pyramids: the protection of the bodies of the pharaohs.

As demonstrated by the size of this ancient funerary barge found in one of the ascending corridors of the pharaoh Khafre's pyramid, the Egyptian pyramids were built to be well-filled!

B) Tombs of pharaohs

The pyramids have nothing to envy the castles of the Middle Ages: they are places designed to be inviolable.

Indeed, according to Egyptian beliefs, damage or outrage inflicted on the body of the pharaoh could have serious repercussions in his "second eternal life".

Thus, numerous traps and hieroglyphs bearing divine curses were laid out in such a way as to dissuade the desecration of grave robbers. Moreover, in addition to traps such as "trapped slabs", "trapped doors" and "snake pits", the architecture almost always provided for an easy to find "false king's chamber" in order to protect the pharaoh's real chamber.

However, despite all these carefully considered and costly precautions, it is estimated that all the treasures of the pyramids disappeared a little before the year 1000 BC.

On this diagram revealing the secrets of the Pyramid of Khufu, one can clearly see the part in the ground containing the false chamber of the pharaoh. This room is very easy to discover since a visitor only has to walk in a straight line from the main entrance of the building to get there!


Pyramids of Giza

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Pyramids of Giza, Arabic Ahrāmāt Al-Jīzah, Giza also spelled Gizeh, three 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce ) pyramids erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile River near Al-Jīzah (Giza) in northern Egypt. In ancient times they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World. The ancient ruins of the Memphis area, including the Pyramids of Giza, Ṣaqqārah, Dahshūr, Abū Ruwaysh, and Abū Ṣīr, were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.

Who were the pyramids of Giza built for?

The pyramids of Giza were royal tombs built for three different pharaohs. The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group was built for Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the 4th dynasty. Called the Great Pyramid, it is the largest of the three. The middle pyramid was built for Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty. The southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure (Greek: Mykerinus), the fifth king of the 4th dynasty. It is 218 feet (66 metres) high, significantly smaller than the pyramids of Khufu (481.4 feet [147 metres]) and Khafre (471 feet [143 metres]).

What do the pyramids of Giza represent?

Historians continue to debate about the ancient Egyptians’ use of the pyramid form for the royal tombs at Giza and in funerary sites elsewhere. Several theories have been proposed about what the form represents: the pyramid may function as a stairway for the pharaoh’s ka to reach the heavens, it could refer to the ancient mound of creation, or it might symbolize sunrays spreading to the earth.

What’s inside the pyramids of Giza?

The pyramids of Giza are mostly solid masses of stone with very little to be found inside. Like many ancient Egyptian pyramids, those of Khafre and Menkaure have passageways at their base that lead to small subterranean burial chambers underneath each pyramid. Khufu’s pyramid also has underground tunnels, but the burial chamber is located in the centre of the structure, accessible via a climb up a tight interior passageway. Contrary to what one might expect, there are no hieroglyphic texts, treasures, or mummies in any of pyramids of Giza. Decoration inside pyramids began several centuries after those of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure were constructed. Moreover, any treasure would have been plundered in ancient and medieval times—a fate that likely affected the bodies of the kings, which have never been found.

How did the Egyptians build the pyramids?

The question of how the pyramids were built has not received a wholly satisfactory answer. The most plausible one is that the Egyptians employed a sloping and encircling embankment of brick, earth, and sand, which was increased in height and length as the pyramid rose stone blocks were hauled up the ramp by means of sledges, rollers, and levers. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, the Great Pyramid took 20 years to construct and demanded the labour of 100,000 men. This figure is believable given the assumption that these men, who were agricultural labourers, worked on the pyramids only (or primarily) while there was little work to be done in the fields—i.e., when the Nile River was in flood. By the late 20th century, however, archaeologists had found evidence that a more limited workforce may have occupied the site on a permanent rather than a seasonal basis. It was suggested that as few as 20,000 workers, with accompanying support personnel (bakers, physicians, priests, etc.), would have been adequate for the task.

Can you go inside or climb the pyramids of Giza?

The interiors of all three pyramids of Giza are open to visitors, but each requires the purchase of a separate ticket. Although tourists were once able to freely climb the pyramids, that is now illegal. Offenders face up to three years in prison as penalty. In 2016 a teenage tourist was banned from visiting Egypt for life after posting photos and videos on social media of his illicit climb.

The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the kings for whom they were built. The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group was built for Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the 4th dynasty. Called the Great Pyramid, it is the largest of the three, the length of each side at the base averaging 755.75 feet (230 metres) and its original height being 481.4 feet (147 metres). The middle pyramid was built for Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty the structure measures 707.75 feet (216 metres) on each side and was originally 471 feet (143 metres) high. The southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure (Greek: Mykerinus), the fifth king of the 4th dynasty each side measures 356.5 feet (109 metres), and the structure’s completed height was 218 feet (66 metres). All three pyramids were plundered both internally and externally in ancient and medieval times. Thus, the grave goods originally deposited in the burial chambers are missing, and the pyramids no longer reach their original heights because they have been almost entirely stripped of their outer casings of smooth white limestone the Great Pyramid, for example, is now only 451.4 feet (138 metres) high. That of Khafre retains the outer limestone casing only at its topmost portion. Constructed near each pyramid was a mortuary temple, which was linked via a sloping causeway to a valley temple on the edge of the Nile floodplain. Also nearby were subsidiary pyramids used for the burials of other members of the royal family.


Pyramid

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pyramid, in architecture, a monumental structure constructed of or faced with stone or brick and having a rectangular base and four sloping triangular (or sometimes trapezoidal) sides meeting at an apex (or truncated to form a platform). Pyramids have been built at various times in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, western Asia, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, India, Thailand, Mexico, South America, and on some islands of the Pacific Ocean. Those of Egypt and of Central and South America are the best known.

The pyramids of ancient Egypt were funerary edifices. They were built over a period of 2,700 years, ranging from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period. But the time at which pyramid building reached its acme, the pyramid age par excellence, was that commencing with the 3rd dynasty and ending at roughly the 6th (c. 2686–2325 bce ). During those years the pyramid was the usual type of royal tomb. It was not, as such, an isolated structure but was always part of an architectural complex. The essential components, at least during the Old Kingdom, were the pyramid itself, containing or surmounting the grave proper and standing within an enclosure on high desert ground an adjacent mortuary temple and a causeway leading down to a pavilion (usually called the valley temple), situated at the edge of the cultivation and probably connected with the Nile by a canal. Scores of royal pyramids have been found in Egypt, but many of them were reduced to mere mounds of debris and long ago plundered of their treasures.

The prototype of the pyramid was the mastaba, a form of tomb known in Egypt from the beginning of the dynastic era. It was characterized by a flat-topped rectangular superstructure of mud brick or stone with a shaft descending to the burial chamber far below it. Djoser, the second king of the 3rd dynasty, employing Imhotep as architect, undertook for the first time the construction of a mastaba entirely of stone it was 8 metres (26 feet) high and had a square ground plan with sides of about 63 metres (207 feet) each. Once completed it was extended on the ground on all four sides, and its height was increased by building rectangular additions of diminishing size superimposed upon its top. Thus Djoser’s original mastaba became a terraced structure rising in six unequal stages to a height of 60 metres (197 feet), its base measuring 120 metres (394 feet) by 108 metres (354 feet). This monument, which lies at Ṣaqqārah, is known as the Step Pyramid it is probably the earliest stone building of importance erected in Egypt. The substructure has an intricate system of underground corridors and rooms, its main feature being a central shaft 25 metres (82 feet) deep and 8 metres (26 feet) wide, at the bottom of which is the sepulchral chamber built of granite from Aswān. The Step Pyramid rises within a vast walled court 544 metres (1,785 feet) long and 277 metres (909 feet) wide, in which are the remnants of several other stone edifices built to supply the wants of the king in the hereafter.

A structure of peculiar shape called the Bent, Blunted, False, or Rhomboidal Pyramid, which stands at Dahshūr a short distance south of Ṣaqqārah, marks an advance in development toward the strictly pyramidal tomb. Built by Snefru, of the 4th dynasty, it is 188 square metres (2,024 square feet) at the base and approximately 98 metres (322 feet) high. Peculiar in that it has a double slope, it changes inclination about halfway up, the lower portion being steeper than the upper. It comes nearer than Djoser’s terraced tomb to being a true pyramid. A monumental structure at Maydūm, also ascribed to Snefru, was a true pyramid, though not originally planned as such. The initial structure was gradually enlarged until it became a gigantic eight-terraced mass of masonry then the steps were filled in with a packing of stone to form a continuous slope. The entire structure was eventually covered with a smooth facing of limestone a geometrically true pyramid was the final result. In its ruined condition, however, it has the appearance of a three-stepped pyramid rising to a height of about 70 metres (230 feet). The earliest tomb known to have been designed and executed throughout as a true pyramid is the Red Pyramid at Dahshūr, thought by some to have also been erected by Snefru. It is about 220 metres (722 feet) wide at the base and 104 metres (341 feet) high. The greatest of the Egyptian pyramids are those of the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkure at Giza (see Pyramids of Giza).


Facts about Egyptian Pyramids

This article will enlighten you with some of the most interesting facts about Egyptian pyramids. Brace yourselves to know all about them.

This article will enlighten you with some of the most interesting facts about Egyptian pyramids. Brace yourselves to know all about them.

One of the most amazing creations, which took place at the hands of man, is undoubtedly the Egyptian pyramids. These huge structures were actually the burial monuments for the country’s pharaohs. The Egyptians believed in afterlife. They believed that the dead pharaoh continued to live even after his death, as Osiris, the king of the dead. Some part of his spirit, according to the people, remained in the corpse.

So, in order to take proper care of the soul, the dead body was provided with food and shelter. The body was mummified for its preservation, and in the grave, there would be all those things, which the dead pharaoh would require to fulfill his duties as the king of the dead.

Now, the shelter that was provided to the dead king were tombs, which were carved into bedrock. This structure was topped with a flat-roof structure. So, what would have happened is, with time, dust would get accumulated mounting the grave. So, it is possible that the shape of these mounds could have given rise to the pyramid shape of tombs that came into existence. Here are some more facts about Egyptian pyramids.

  • These structures were not built by slaves or people hailing from other lands. They were made by the people of ancient Egypt.
  • Archaeologists were able to excavate bakeries near these tombs. These bakeries may have supplied about thousands of bread loaves every week.
  • Other than bakeries, excavations reveal that the civilization in Egypt also had butchers, granaries, cemeteries, and even health-care facilities.
  • In the construction at Giza, it has been found that the number of workers were 20,000 to 30,000 in number.
  • As of the year 2010, it is said that 138 of these monuments were discovered in Egypt.
  • The Djoser’s Step at Saqqara is known to be the first of all these monuments ever built.
  • The Great Pyramid of Giza is honored to be one of the seven wonders of the world. It is also known as the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops.
  • It is believed to have been made of over 100,000 giant stones, ranging from 1 to 20 tons in weight.
  • Strangely, the biggest of all these monuments is not situated in Egypt, but in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is known as Tlachihualtepetl. It has also been honored by the title of the largest monument by volume. The one at Giza is the largest one of its kind on the land.
  • From around 2500 B.C till 1889, this monument was attributed to be the tallest structure in the world. However, with the Eiffel Tower coming into existence, it no more retained this position.
  • The Red Pyramid is known to be the ‘True’ pyramid that was constructed in 2600 B.C.
  • These memorials are associated with the pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb. Reportedly, after his tomb was discovered by Egyptologist Howard Carter, he died due to an infected mosquito bite on his cheek. What was strange was that when the death mask of the pharaoh was lifted, there was a lesion in the same place on the cheek. Also, Carter’s dog howled and died at the same time, back home at England. Now, these could be the elements of mere coincidence, or what the media called it … The Pharaoh’s Curse.

Here is a table that gives you a synopsis of the significant Egyptian pyramids that were built under the rulers who reigned from the period of 2630 B.C to 2250 B.C.

  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Djoser
  • Built in 2630 BC
  • Built at Saqqara
  • It is 204 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Snefru
  • Built in 2600 BC
  • Built at Maidum
  • It is 306 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Snefru
  • Built in 2600 BC
  • Built at Dahshur
  • It is 344 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Snefru
  • Built in 2600 BC
  • Built at Dahshur
  • It is 341 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Great Pharaoh Khufu
  • Built in 2550 BC
  • Built at Giza
  • It is 481 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Khafre
  • Built in 2520 BC
  • Built at Giza
  • It is 471 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Menkaure
  • Built in 2490 BC
  • Built at Giza
  • It is 213 feet in height
  • Built under the reign of Pharaoh Pepi II
  • Built in 2250 BC
  • Built at Saqqara
  • It is 172 feet in height

This is where I would period my data on some of the most important and basic facts about Egyptian pyramids. What has been presented here can be attributed as the tip of an iceberg. There are several theories, which are buried under these gargantuan man-made structures. Although archaeologists have been able to shovel out most mysteries behind the creation of these monuments, they still have miles to uncover and unearth.


19 There’s a Country with Twice the Number of the Egyptian Pyramids.

It’s your choice to believe this, but before you disagree, you might want to pay a visit to Nubia in Sudan. Nubia was once a part of ancient Egypt, and the fact of the matter is that the Nubian pyramids were built 500 years before the pyramids of Giza. They look like the Egyptian pyramids, but they’re much smaller in size. Most of them were built to accommodate only one person as a burial tomb for the ancient kings and queens.


When Were They Built?

Though the pyramids are one of the most recognizable symbols of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, these immense, complex tombs were only built during distinct portions of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The first known pyramid, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, has been dated to around 2630 B.C during the third dynasty, and most of the larger pyramids, including the Pyramids of Giza, were constructed shortly after, with the Great Pyramid being built around 2530 B.C. After this initial burst of building, pyramid construction stopped entirely at the end of the sixth dynasty, around 2200 B.C. During the 12th to 14th dynasties, between 2000 B.C. and 1700 B.C., pyramid building experienced a brief renaissance, though the results were not as monumental as the earlier period.


Egyptian Pyramids - Facts, Use and Construction - HISTORY

Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
It was believed by the ancient philosophers stead of one unit long. This indicates that the height of the Great Pyramid was chosen to represent dynamic geometry, on the other hand, the shape of the pyramid directly implies static geometry. The floor of the King’s Chamber has the shape of a perfect Golden Rectangle which gives all the information necessary to construct the Fibonacci series and the logarithmic spiral. The logarithmic spiral is a function of PHI and is consequently a building block of dynamic geometry. In Figure (17) we show a diagram of the logarithmic spiral, see the book by Adler for a full derivation of the spiral’s mathematical aspects.

Evidence of the Fibonacci series and the logarithmic spiral occur throughout the natural world. In Figure (18) we show the shell of the chambered nautilus which has the shape of a perfect logarithmic spiral. In Figure (19) we show how the perfect form of the human body can be ascertained through use of the Fibonacci series. Certain occult symbols, such as the star of David, or the five pointed star, have distances measured in Fibonacci numbers. This star is shown in Figure (20) and is sometimes called the Golden Triangle.

Throughout all the universe, the processes of life and death are common. I consider birth as a transition from static to dynamic geometry and death as a transition from dynamic to static geometry. A perfect dynamic sphere, like our sun, dies by radiating back into a static cube. The sun was created by having energy focused from the planes of the static cube towards a point within the cube. This idea is contrary to the modern concept of a Black Hole because a black hole implies that mass of high density can exist which will not expand into a gaseous state again. I wish to point out that a Black hole has never been discovered, and according to my hypothesis, it will never be discovered. The Black Hole concept is a consequence of a failure in the postulates of modem Geometrical Physics. Just as all of the mass of a star was brought into being (by a projection) from static geometry, all of its mass must return to the static geometry from which it came (by means of radiation). The shape of the Great Pyramid denotes concentration of matter from a gaseous state (base of pyramid) to the solid state (peak of pyramid) by means of “concentration.” It implies that a force is necessary to bring about the concentration and this force may be analogous to the power of the “mind” to concentrate towards a single point.

Modem Physics is trying to prove that all Physics is a result of pure geometry. I disagree with this concept, believing that geometry is only the “structure” of space and that “light” is housed within this structure. The discrete resonance phenomena, present in all of atomic physics, appears to be a consequence of light waves acting on the geometry of space. We should be able to describe the movement of light by means of dynamic geometry and the cavities, within which light is resonating, by means of static geometry.

The fact that the Great Pyramid was built in such a manner as to imply “squaring the circle” and “cubing the sphere” 2 means to me that the ancients were trying to tell us that the static form should be shifted to the dynamic form. The pyramid can be easily shifted to a cone and the cube can be likewise shifted to a sphere. The cone is a perfect representation of the dynamic concentration of energy. This implies that the shape of the cone is connected with creation in some manner. On the other hand, the logarithmic spiral gives the impression of outward “expansion.” Consequently, I assume that it is connected with the transition from the dynamic geometrical state to the static geometrical state.

Another interesting point may be brought out by considering the volume of the Great Pyramid, using units such that each side is two units long. A cube, with each side being two units long, has a volume of 8 cubic units. Assume that each cubic unit contains a unit of energy, then we can say that the cube has a volume of 8 units containing 8 units of energy. Six times the volume of the Great Pyramid of Egypt contains 8 times the square root of PHI units of volume thus, it can represent 8 times the square root of PHI energy units. This means that the pyramid represents more energy than is necessary to sustain an associated cube. This implies that energy is contained within the cube consequently, we assume that this energy is light energy.

From Newton we understand that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Since the universe must always be in perfect balance, it is logical to assume that there must be a reaction or counterpart to all perceived forces and entities. For example, in Physics we know that if we have a positive charge located at some distance above ground, we can plot the field between the charge and ground by assuming that there is another charge, which is negative, located an equal distance below ground. In other words, when a positive charge is present, a negative charge must also be implicitly present, even though it is not physically present. Thus, I assume that there is implicitly present one or more anti-pyramids to the Great Pyramid.

By virtue of its asymmetry the Pyramid implies two directions of thought projection, one towards the apex, which we take to represent material creation, and one towards the base which we take to represent destruction. The anti-destruction pyramid is back-to-back to the actual pyramid and is located below ground, see Figure (21). The anti-construction pyramid is peak to peak with the actual pyramid and is located above the apex, see Figure (22). The joint action of the construction and anti-construction pyramids bring about creation, the joint action of the destruction and anti-destruction pyramids bring about the expansion and death of that which has been created. Destruction and construction interact cyclically with one another. Consequently, we see that from the Great Pyramid, the same conclusions can be drawn that were determined by Dr. Walter Russell while in a state of cosmic consciousness.3 We illustrate the combined life-death cycle in Figure (23). where the rod joins the rocket ship. From conclusions such as this, it is determined that spacetime acts very much like a curved space (dynamic geometry). It is further determined, from General Relativity, that the space-time diagram, which describes the accelerating rocket ship with respect to the rest of the universe, has the form of two cones, apex to apex as illustrated in Figure (25). This is directly analogous to what has been deduced from the Great Pyramid. This space-time cone has very interesting interpretations: The point where the apexes of the two cones meet is the anchor for all action in the system. The ancient Hindus believed that the entire being of all created things are balanced about a single point. All events which happen in the domain of the space-time cone of the space ship happen simultaneously in the point at which the two cones meet. In other words, the past and the future have no meaning at the point at which the two cones meet. “All that was is, now and all that shall be is, now!” Indeed, this is an eternal and cosmic concept of which we, at present, understand but little. From the point of view of the accelerating space ship, all heavenly bodies which are located in the upper cone accelerate downward to the apex and all heavenly bodies located in the lower cone accelerate upward to the apex. This is directly analogous to the manner in which atomic particles are created by accelerating light towards the point of concentration.

The Time Theory of Nikolai Kozyrev4 is also implied in the Great Pyramid of Egypt. Asymmetry is the cornerstone of this theory of time and asymmetry is implied in the Great Pyramid by the number PHI. The logarithmic spiral is an asymmetrical structure. If a system is in perfect balance, there is no possible way for motion to appear in it. One of the' primary purposes of asymmetry in nature is to set up the proper conditions to bring about motion. According to Kozyrev, time has the ability to decrease the entropy of a system however, the action of time upon a system is so minute that it goes undetected in the physical system with which we are familiar. If the action of time upon a system does become noticeable, the engineers just attribute it to system perturbations. In the Great Pyramid of Egypt, the action of the flow of time has been amplified, by the shape of the pyramid, to make it capable of preserving organic matter. Time- flow and Bioplasma are just different terms used to describe the same mysterious force which is responsible for the creation and maintenance of all material systems. According to Kozyrev, bioplasma has the ability to increase the energy of a system but it is unable to affect the momentum of a system.

Bioplasma should have properties which are just the reverse of nuclear energy. It was Dr. Wilhelm Reich who first experimented with this idea in what he referred to as “The Oranur Experiment.” 5 In this experiment it was found that bioplasma reacted violently with radioactive material, producing a by-product that was extremely dangerous to life for a short period of time. However, it was also found that the radioactivity was reduced by the action of the bioplasma. This experiment gives evidence that bioplasma is definitely a creative force which acts in the opposite direction to nuclear force. In the words of Kozyrev: “If mechanics enables us some day to detect and control vital processes outside organic life, operating machines will renovate (and not only exhaust) the world’s potentialities. Thus, a genuine harmony between man and nature may be established. Abstract as this dream sounds, it has a realistic basis.”

From these considerations, we understand that “Time” is simply the geometrical aspect of bioplasma, expressing as static geometry whereas, concentration (the focusing of energy) is its dynamic aspect, expressing through dynamic geometry. The reciprocal action between dynamic and static geometry bring about the processes of decay and death, together with construction and life. In Figure (23) the Life-Death cycle is illustrated. The static planes house the causes of creation, and the focus points embody the effects of creation. In other words, all causes in the universe are inherent in static geometry, whereas, all effects are grounded in dynamic geometry.


Pyramid of Khafre

Is smaller than pyramid of his father Cheops (Khufu), but his pyramid was found in better condition. The original height of the Pyramid was 143.5 meters. The current height is 136.4 m. The pyramid was built during the Fourth dynasty. It was made of red granite blocks, weighing about several tons and its red color is in the contrast with white alabaster floors. The remains of its original coating are still present at the top of the structure. People say that pyramid was so sparkling that it was visible from the Masada in Israel. In time, the coating from the pyramid was taken off and it was used in the construction in Cairo. The tombs were looted, as most of them in Egypt. In the pyramid was found a statue of Khafre, which today is in the Cairo museum.


A Few Hustles to Avoid

A journey to Egypt's pyramids is on the bucket-list of just about everyone with an interest in mankind's history. And like most world-famous tourist destinations, Egypt's pyramids attract not only avid tourists but also some characters looking for some personal enrichment. The first, best advice is to always ask for the price first, before you're enticed – even if the offer sounds like nothing more than a friendly gesture. For example, if someone offers to pose for a photograph, first ask if it will cost you and, if so, how much. Self-appointed guides will persistently offer to give you a special tour they may even claim (falsely) that you must be accompanied by a guide, or that the official entrance is closed, or that they can show you things others can't. Don't fall for these ploys. If you're offered an antique relic for sale, whether by a stranger or at a market, be extremely skeptical cheap imitations are manufactured expressly to fool unwary bargain-hunters. Be alert for pickpockets, just as you would at any major attraction either wear a cross-body purse or money belt so you have your personal belongings within reach front & center.

Although you're certainly free to give yourself a self-guided tour, if this is your first Egyptian journey you might be well-advised to choose from the many professionally-led group tours available starting from Cairo. You'll be provided with transportation to the different sites you wish to visit, and your guides will help protect you against any potential scam artists. That way, you'll be able to avoid worries and feel much more free to simply enjoy yourself.