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Reading PF-66 - History

Reading PF-66 - History



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Reading

(PF-66: dp. 2,415 (f.),1. 303'11", b. 37'6", dr. 13'8", s. 20 k cpl. 190, a. 3 3", 4 40mm., 9 20mm., 2 dct., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.); cl. Tacoma)

Reading (PF-66) was laid down by the Beathem D. Smith Shipbuilding Co., Sturgeon Bay, Wis 25 Mav 1913, launched 28 August 1943, sponsored by Mrs. John C. Butterweek towed down the Mississippi and commissioned at New Orleans 19 August 1944, Lt. Comdr. Nelson C. McCormick, USCG, rn command.

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Reading reported for fast convoy escort duty hetween the IJnited States and European and North African ports. Her first such duty began in January 1945 when she departed Norfolk for Algeria. Returning to the United States w ith another convoy, she made one more round trip to the Mediterranean before the end of the war with Germany.

On 26 May Reading commenced conversion to a weather ship. An intricate array of meteorological equipment was installed and a supply of cold u-eather gear W.tS taken on board before the Reading was declared ready for sea on 10 June. Her first ueather station was off Boston, ubere she was forced to "lie to" because it was too deep to anchor. In the fall, the weather ship moved northu-ard and took station betu-een the Canadian and Icelandic coasts. Weather observations were transmitted 12 times daily and homing signals were radioed to aircraft periodically. When relieved from her station, the ship put into either irgentia or Reykjavik for refueling and provisioning.

On 16 November Reading received orders for decommissioning. She put in at Portsmouth, Va., and was decommissioned there 19 December 1945. She uas struck from the Navy list 8 January 1946, delivered to United Boat Service Corp., New York, and resold to Argentina in July 1947.


The 66 Books of the Bible

We can't begin a study on the divisions of the books of the Bible without first clarifying the term canon. The canon of Scripture refers to the list of books that are officially accepted as "divinely inspired" and thus rightfully belonging in the Bible. Only the canonical books are considered the authoritative Word of God. The process of determining the biblical canon was begun by Jewish scholars and rabbis and later finalized by the early Christian church toward the end of the fourth century.

More than 40 authors in three languages during a period of 1,500 years contributed to the books and letters which make up the biblical canon of Scripture.


Cachet Maker Alvin Eckert


Cachets should be listed in chronological order based on earliest known usage. Use the postmark date or best guess. This applies to add-on cachets as well.

Thumbnail Link
To Cachet
Close-Up Image
Thumbnail Link
To Full
Cover Front Image
Thumbnail Link
To Postmark
or Back Image
Postmark Date
Postmark Type
Killer Bar Text
Ship
---------
Category

1991-12-30
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"Marina Station"
San Francisco CA

Ship Commemorative - WWII Liberty Ship SS Jeremiah O'Brien

Cachet by Robert D. Rawlins and Alvin Eckert and sponsored by the USS Saginaw Chapter No. 59, USCS

1995-12-20
USPS 4-bar Cancel
Norfolk VA

50th Anniversary of Decommissioning -
USS Reading PF-66

1996-03-31
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"Conversion Station"
Mare Island CA

Note: From Al Eckert: "When the shipyard closed we were looking for a good cachet design and I suggested the USS Scamp design with the long row of industrial buildings, just like it appears in real life from across the Napa River. We left room for the pictorial postmark on the upper left."
From Bob Rawlins: "[The cachet] was not sponsored by Saginaw Chapter. The Saginaw Chapter cover is #116 on the master list and is different from the [one on this cover]."
Ray Costa's name is on the back of the cover but I am not sure what, if any, significance this has.


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Historic Maps

Route 66 Maps by DOT of Oklahoma

The Oklahoma DOT has a great US 66 maps webpage, where you can select the maps county by county and also by city.

1926 U.S. Highway System - showing Route 66's original alignment

Thumbnail of the 1926 US highways map
With Route 66 (click image to enlarge)

This map was published by the Bureau of Public Roads on November 11, 1926), and depicts the United States System of Highways defined by the American Association of State Highway Officials.

View the large sized 1926 US highway system Map (it includes Route 66). Or click on the image for the large version.

Texas maps 1915 - 1937

Historic Route 66 Maps
Texas (click image for maps)

A series of interesting Road Maps of the state of Texas in the early 1900s, and a U.S. Roadmap (1937).

It also includes several maps of Route 66 and one of the map of Jericho Gap.

The image shows northern Texas and Route 66 close to Amarillo.

Arizona, New Mexico and California Maps from 1915

Thumbnail of one of the 1915 Railroad maps
Click to enlarge

The "Guidebook of the Western United States" by N.H Darton published in 1915 describes the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe railroad from Kansas City all the way to California.

The railroad chose the easiest route to cross Kansas, Texas, New Mexico Arizona and California, and for that very reason it was the route that was later followed by the first highways.

When Route 66 was created in 1926 it was aligned along those original roads and therefore ran parallel to the railroad.

This map shows us what the Southwest looked like over one-hundred years ago, barely eleven years before the creation of Route 66:

The 1865-1981 Arizona Maps

Thumbnail of the 1935 Arizona highway map
With Route 66 (click image for more)

The Arizona DOT has a page with many good maps spanning the period from 1865 to 1981. The highway maps from 1920, 1925 show the alignment followed by Route 66 (which you can see in the 1935 map).

Check out the Arizona Highway maps of the AZDOT.

Don't miss the 1927 Maps of Arizona and New Mexico from the David Rumsey collection. They are historic highway maps from 1927 and they show the then brand new Route 66.

New Mexico US 66 Map

Below is part of the 1927 Map of Route 66 (David Rumsey Collection) showing Santa Rosa, Santa Fe and Albuquerque, the "loop through Santa Fe" and the shorter NM state Highway 6 which would become Route 66 after 1937.

The 1927 alignment of Route 66 from Santa Rosa through Santa Fe. David Rumsey

California Early 1900s Maps

An early 1900s map Mojave Desert, California

The American Roads Forum in its section on Highway 66 >> Barstow and Daggett to Needles, has several "old" road maps dating from 1913 to the 1950s covering the Mojave Desert Region from Barstow to Needles.

The thumbnail shows the area around Barstow in 1912. They show the alignment later followed by US 66.

More Vintage Route 66 Maps

Library of UTEXAS

The Library of the University of Texas has a Full collection of maps of Texas towns and cities, including allthe towns located along U.S. 66 in Texas.

Missouri Highway Maps

The Missouri DOT has the Missouri Highway Map Archive 1918 - 2014, an online collection of maps which include Route 66, spanning 96 years of highway history.

USGS online Historic maps

1940 USGS map of Williamsville, IL

The United States Geological Survey has placed its historical topographic map collection online just type in the location and select the year to find your map.

It is a great resource to discover the original US 66 alignments in different cities across the country.

The thumbnail image taken from a USGS map, shows (red line) two separate alignments of Route 66 through Williamsville in Illinois, the original 1926 road and the realignment during World War II (in 1940).

Some sponsored content

Credits

Banner image: Hackberry General Store, Hackberry, Arizona by Perla Eichenblat.
The 1927 AZ & NM map is from the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection, under Fair usage and its BY-NC-SA 3.0, License. Metadata: Author and Publisher: Rand McNally and Company, Chicago. Date: 1927. Full Title: Rand McNally junior auto road map Arizona, New Mexico. Copyright by Rand McNally & Co., Chicago, Ill. (1927). List No: 5755.032 Page No: 66-67 Series No: 36.


COVID-19 RE-OPENING UPDATE

As of Wednesday, June 2, 2021, The Berks History Center is open by appointment only. Please call 610-375-4375 to make an appointment. You can learn more about visiting the Berks History Center’s Museum and Henry Janssen Library by following this link: https://www.berkshistory.org/reopening/.

An important note: Until 70% of Pennsylvanians 18 and older are fully vaccinated, face masks are required to enter our buildings and for the duration of your visit regardless of your vaccine status.

Berks History Center invites you to cultivate local food security by learning about the history of victory gardens and growing your own gardens at home, wherever possible.

Thanks to The Friends of Reading Hospital for sponsoring the Berks History for Victory project.

Let’s help each other grow! Join the Berks Victory Gardeners Facebook group!

These are extraordinary times and your experience is important! We are now witnessing a unique historical moment as our community responds to the COVID-19 pandemic. Berks History Center wants to preserve your story.

Funding has been provided by the Pennsylvania Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act of 2020.


How do I take a peak flow reading?

Your doctor or nurse will show you how to take a peak flow reading. It is important to do this correctly otherwise, the readings can be misleading. Briefly, you must put the marker to zero, take a deep breath, seal your lips around the mouthpiece, then blow as hard and as fast as you can into the device. Note the reading.

Each time you check your 'peak flow', you should do three blows, one after the other. The 'best of the three' is the reading to record. However, when you do three blows straight after each other, the readings should all be about the same. If they are not, you may not be blowing into the device correctly. A common error is to not to blow as hard as you can. Another common error is to not put your lips right round the mouthpiece to make sure that all the air you blow out goes through the device.


History of the Bible

Ardon Bar Hama/The Israel Museum, Jerusalem

  • The Bible
  • Christianity Origins
  • The New Testament
  • The Old Testament
  • Practical Tools for Christians
  • Christian Life For Teens
  • Christian Prayers
  • Weddings
  • Inspirational Bible Devotions
  • Denominations of Christianity
  • Funerals and Memorial Services
  • Christian Holidays
  • Christian Entertainment
  • Key Terms in Christianity
  • Catholicism
  • Latter Day Saints

The Bible is reported to be the biggest bestseller of all time, and its history is fascinating to study. As God's Spirit breathed on the authors of the Bible, they recorded the messages with whatever resources were available at the time. The Bible itself illustrates some of the materials used: engravings in clay, inscriptions on tablets of stone, ink and papyrus, vellum, parchment, leather, and metals.

This timeline traces the unparalleled history of the Bible down through the ages. Discover how God's Word has been painstakingly preserved, and for extended periods even suppressed, during its long and arduous journey from creation to present day English translations.


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Service history [ edit | edit source ]

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Reading reported for fast convoy escort duty between the United States and European and North African ports. Her first such duty began in January 1945 when she departed Norfolk, Virginia, for Algeria. Returning to the United States with another convoy, she made one more round-trip to the Mediterranean before the end of the war with Germany.

On 26 May Reading commenced conversion to a weather ship. An intricate array of meteorological equipment was installed, her number three 3-inch (76 mm) gun mount was replaced by a hangar for a weather blimp, and a supply of cold weather gear was taken on board before the Reading was declared ready for sea on 10 June. Her first weather station was off Boston, where she was forced to "lie to" because it was too deep to anchor. In the fall, the weather ship moved northward and took station between the Canadian and Icelandic coasts. Weather observations were transmitted 12 times daily and homing signals were radioed to aircraft periodically. When relieved from her station, the ship put into either NS Argentia, Newfoundland or Reykjavík, Iceland for refueling and provisioning.

On 16 November Reading received orders for decommissioning. She put in at Portsmouth, Virginia, and was decommissioned there on 19 December 1945. She was struck from the Navy list on 5 January 1946, delivered to United Boat Service Corporation, New York City, and then resold to Argentina in July 1947. Renamed ARA Heroína (P-32), the ship was scrapped in 1966.


Gender Shifts in the History of English

This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: September 2009
  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online ISBN: 9780511486913
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486913
  • Series: Studies in English Language
  • Subjects: English Language and Linguistics: General Interest, Historical Linguistics, Language and Linguistics

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Book description

How and why did grammatical gender, found in Old English and in other Germanic languages, gradually disappear from English and get replaced by a system where the gender of nouns and the use of personal pronouns depend on the natural gender of the referent? How is this shift related to 'irregular agreement' (such as she for ships) and 'sexist' language use (such as generic he) in Modern English, and how is the language continuing to evolve in these respects? Anne Curzan's accessibly written and carefully researched study is based on extensive corpus data, and will make a major contribution by providing a historical perspective on these often controversial questions. It will be of interest to researchers and students in history of English, historical linguistics, corpus linguistics, language and gender, and medieval studies.

Reviews

‘This book is clearly written and accessible to undergraduates in a variety of disciplines, not just in the field of linguistics. It would also be of interest to those in the area of gender studies and mediaeval history. Each of the main analytical chapters opens with a contemporary question which contextualises the relevance of the study within Modern English footnoting elaborates points made throughout.’

Source: Journal of Sociolinguistics

'Let me just say that I wish to give it the highest possible marks for its scholarship, convincing argumentation, admirable historical insights, and exactitude. I am sure it will be a valuable textbook in a number of academic disciplines such as English, sociolinguistics, and women's studies.'