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Who owned Franz Josef islands between 1918-1926?

Who owned Franz Josef islands between 1918-1926?

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Franz Josef land was discovered and claimed by Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1873. Previously Norway discovered it, but they never reported the discovery.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissoluted in 1918. Which country owned Franz Josef land until the 1926 annexation by USSR? I guess the trivial answer would be Austria or independence, I couldn't find definite answer.

UPDATE By some google search I managed to find a short sentence about Italian claims, but doesn't lead anywere since it is referring "late 20's", hereby you can read it

Semaphore's hypothesis was right.

I found interesting resource which tells us that islands actually had been considered terra nullius till 1926.

Until the year 1926 the islands had been considered "Terra Nullius", or other words, "No Man's Land". However, following practices of Canada, the Soviet Union claimed that all land in the sector between the Soviet mainland and the North Pole was Soviet territory. This met with criticism from the Norwegians who refused to recognize the islands as being a part of Russia. but they were able to do little with their complaints against the much larger Soviet authority. (1)

However, that decision had little practical impact immediately, and even on the official Soviet maps issued in 1926,1928 and even 1929 (image below) Franz Josef Land was marked as being outside of the Soviet Union. (2)

Norwegian government officially protested in Moscow against this unilateral decree of annexation. Also, fascist government claimed sovereignty over the archipelago in 1928 after the disaster of the Nobile expedition - arguing that the Tegetthoff (named after Wilhelm von Tegetthoff) was equipped with an engine from the now-Italian city of Trieste, but non of these protests had any success.

(1) Barr et al. 1995

(2) Spitzbergen with Frank Josef Land & Jan Mayen (Bradt Svalbard, 201)

It was annexed by Austria Hungary on November 2, 1873. On August 16 (29) 1914 the Imperial Russian Navy changed the name to "Romanov Land" that day on the conquest of the archipelago at "Hertha Rock" at Cape Flora.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde ( / ˈ f r æ ŋ k oʊ / , Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko ba.a.ˈmõn̪.de] 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who led the Nationalist forces in overthrowing the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and thereafter ruled over Spain from 1939 to 1975 as a dictator, assuming the title Caudillo. This period in Spanish history, from the Nationalist victory to Franco's death, is commonly known as Francoist Spain or the Francoist dictatorship.

    (President of the National Defence Junta of the Nationalist side)
    (President of the Defence Council of the Republican side)

    (President of the Technical State Junta of the Nationalist side)
    (President of the Defence Council of the Republican side)

Born in Ferrol, Galicia, into an upper-class military family, Franco served in the Spanish Army as a cadet in the Toledo Infantry Academy from 1907 to 1910. While serving in Morocco, he rose through the ranks to become brigadier general in 1926, aged 33, becoming the youngest general in Spain. Two years later Franco became the director of the General Military Academy in Zaragoza. As a conservative and monarchist, Franco regretted the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. He was devastated by the closing of his Academy, but nevertheless continued his service in the Republican Army. [2] His career redoubled after the right-wing CEDA and PRR won the 1933 election empowering him to lead the suppression of the 1934 uprising in Asturias. Franco was briefly elevated to Chief of Army Staff before the 1936 election moved the leftist Popular Front into power, relegating him to the Canary Islands. After initial reluctance, he joined the July 1936 military coup, which, after failing to take Spain, sparked the Spanish Civil War.

During the war, he commanded Spain's colonial army in Africa and after the death of much of the rebel leadership became his faction's only leader, appointed Generalissimo and Head of State in 1936. He consolidated all nationalist parties into the FET y de las JONS (creating a one-party state). Three years later the Nationalists declared victory which extended Franco's dictatorship over Spain through a period of repression of political opponents. His dictatorship's use of forced labor, concentration camps, and executions led to between 30,000 and 50,000 deaths. [10] [11] Combined with wartime killings, this brings the death toll of the White Terror to between 100,000 and 200,000. [12] [13] In post-civil-war Spain, Franco ruled with more power than any Spanish leader before or since, and developed a cult of personality around his rule by founding the Movimiento Nacional. During World War II he maintained Spanish neutrality but supported the Axis — whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War — in various ways, damaging the country's international reputation.

During the start of the Cold War, Franco lifted Spain out of its mid-20th century economic depression through technocratic and economically liberal policies, presiding over a period of rampant growth known as the "Spanish miracle". At the same time, his regime transitioned from being totalitarian to authoritarian with limited pluralism and became a leader in the anti-Communist movement, garnering support from the West, particularly the United States. [14] [15] The dictatorship softened and Luis Carrero Blanco became Franco's éminence grise. Carrero Blanco's role expanded after Franco started struggling with Parkinson's disease in the 1960s. In 1973 Franco resigned as prime minister – separated from the head of state office since 1967 – due to advanced age and illness, but remained in power as the latter and commander-in-chief. Franco died in 1975, aged 82, and was entombed in the Valle de los Caídos. He restored the monarchy in his final years, being succeeded by Juan Carlos as King of Spain, who, in turn, led the Spanish transition to democracy.

The legacy of Franco in Spanish history remains controversial as the nature of his dictatorship changed over time. His reign was marked by both brutal repression, with thousands killed, and economic prosperity, which greatly improved the quality of life in Spain. His dictatorial style proved highly adaptable, which enabled wide-sweeping social and economic reform, while consistent pursuits during his reign centered on highly centralised government, authoritarianism, nationalism, national Catholicism, anti-freemasonry and anti-Communism.

4 ways to avoid getting your ass kicked by Seal Team 6

Posted On June 12, 2020 18:12:07

Here at We Are The Mighty, we can understand if people are worried about getting their ass kicked by SEAL Team 6.

So, as a public service, here are some pointers on how to stay off DevGru’s Naughty List:

How the US Navy plans to fix the F-35’s most troubling problem

Posted On April 02, 2018 09:45:28

In January, a report from Inside Defense broke the news that the US Navy’s F-35 variant, the most expensive in the Joint Strike Fighter family, had an issue with the nose gear that made takeoffs untenably rough and the aircraft unsuited for carrier launches.

The Navy’s F-35C has a history of problems with its development as it attempts to master the tricky art of catapult launches from aircraft carriers, but the nose-gear issue could set back the F-35C into the 2020s if an innovative solution is not found quickly.

Business Insider has uncovered footage that appears to show the problem:

Essentially, the takeoff in the F-35C is too rough, jostling the pilots so they can’t read flight-critical data on their $400,000 helmet-mounted displays.

Also read: Here’s when the F-35 will use stealth mode vs. ‘beast mode’

“This is a very stiff airplane, even though the oscillations about the same magnitude as you would see in a Super Hornet. It beats the pilot up pretty good,” US Air Force Lt. Gen. Chris Bogdan told reporters at the McAleese/Credit Suisse defense conference earlier this month, US Naval Institute News reported.

F-35C pilots are “hurting after doing three or four of these [launches] and in some instances even banging his half-a-million-dollar helmet on the canopy,” Bogdan said. “That’s not good for the canopy or the helmet. So we knew we had an issue there.”

Testing at a land-based US Navy catapult system showed that instead of a costly and lengthy redesign of the F-35C’s nose section, some smaller adjustments may suffice.

Jeff Babione, the general manager of Lockheed Martin’s F-35 program, echoed that sentiment at the company’s office in the Washington, DC, area, telling reporters the company had worked on a few simple changes that seemed to yield results. Babione said Lockheed Martin changed the way the pilot straps in and their head and arm positions, as well as reduced the “holdback,” or stress on the plane, in the moments before launch.

“The initial indication is some of those techniques improved” the F-35C’s launches, Babione said. He conceded that the real testing would be done by the Navy aboard carriers “to see whether or not those changes were successful.”

The make-or-break tests of the launch will take place at sea later this year.


4 things you didn’t know about the epic film ‘Apocalypse Now’

Posted On January 28, 2019 18:41:04

In 1979, film-making legend Francis Ford Coppola released one of the most critically acclaimed films of all time, Apocalypse Now. The story follows Capt. Willard (as played by Martin Sheen), a man tasked with the dangerous mission of traveling deep into the jungles of Cambodia to assassinate a rogue colonel who military intelligence believes has gone insane.

Immediately, the film captivated audiences around the globe. In fact, you can still find screenings of this film in movie theaters throughout the country today. It’s a masterclass in stunning scenery and epic metaphor.

Although this film holds a well-documented place in cinematic history, there are a few things you probably didn’t know about the Vietnam-era classic.

No major movie studio wanted to produce the film

At the time, movie studios were still bitter about the realities of the Vietnam War. Because of this, George Lucas (who worked on the early stages of the film’s development) and John Millius took the script to several studios and were repeatedly turned down.

As a result, the film was put on indefinite hold. Coppola, in the interim, went on to direct a couple of small movies you may have heard of — The Godfather, parts I and II.

After that overwhelming success, Coppola decided to produce his passion project without the help of studios, putting up million of his own money.

A rare film print of Harvey Keitel sharing a laugh with Robert Duvall.

Coppola fired his leading man

Originally, talented actor Harvey Keitel was cast to play the role of Capt. Willard. But, soon after filming started, he was fired and replaced with Martin Sheen, who had his own reservations about taking on the role.

Brando wanted some big bucks to play the role of Kurtz

Coppola convinced Marlon Brando to play the iconic role, one that would become one of his most famous characters. However, Brando wanted a million dollars per week to play the insane colonel. After the production agreed to his request, he was scheduled for three weeks of work. Coppola handed over one million smackeroos as an advance.

After a few weeks of shooting, production began running late. Brando’s people threatened to drop out and keep the million-dollar advance due to rescheduling.

Coppola wasn’t happy but, eventually, everything worked out. The acclaimed director got his villain to deliver an epic performance.

The helicopters that were used in filming were constantly being called away to fight the rebels

At the time of shooting, the Phillipines was in the midst of a rebellion. The pilots that were used during the famous “Ride of the Valkyries” scene kept getting ordered away to fight against rebel forces that were reportedly just 10 miles away from Coppola’s production.

Maybe they really did smell napalm that morning.

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1 Of the scholars to mention the pervasive interwar Masaryk cult, only Vít Vlnas and Robert Pynsent have analyzed it in any depth. See Vlnas, “Myty a kyče první republiky” [The First Republic's myths and kitsches], Nová Přítomnost [The new presence] 8 (1991): 28–29 Pynsent, Questions of Identity: Czech and Slovak Ideas of Nationality and Personality (London, 1994), 193ff.

2 The extensive literature on political mythology has its roots in the work of Ernst Cassirer, who argues that states revert to myths in times of deep crisis, and that modern myths differ from ancient or sacred ones mainly due to the explicit, cynical way that modern regimes craft them: Cassirer, Der Mythus des Staates (Frankfurt, 1988). I have found the following helpful: Yves Bizeul, ed., Politische Mythen und Rituale in Deutschland, Frankreich, und Polen (Berlin, 2000) Christopher Flood, Political Myth: A Theoretical Introduction (New York, 2002) the work of Heidi Hein-Kircher, including Der Piłsudski-Kult und seine Bedeutung für den polnischen Staat 1926–1939 (Marburg, 2002) George Schöpflin and Geoffrey Hosking, ed., Myths and Nationhood (New York, 1997) Vladimir Tismaneanu, Fantasies of Salvation: Democracy, Nationalism, and Myth in Post-Communist Europe (Princeton, 1998) Nina Tumarkin, Lenin Lives! The Lenin Cult in Soviet Russia, enlarged edition (Cambridge, 1997).

3 William Bascom, “The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives,” in Alan Dundes, ed., Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth (Berkeley, 1984), 9–10.

4 Joseph Campbell, interview with Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth (New York, 1988), 30.

5 On the Lenin cult, see Tumarkin and Benno Ennker, Die Anfänge des Leninkults in der Sowjetunion (Köln 1997). For some of the most recent work on the Stalin cult see Apor, Behrends, et al., ed., The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc (Houndmills, UK, 2004).

6 As set out by Heidi Hein-Kircher and Benno Ennker at Der Führer im Europa des. 20. Jahrhunderts, October 2007, Marburg, Germany.

7 E. A. Rees offers a concise presentation of the theory regarding modern leader cults. See Rees, “Leader Cults: Varieties, Preconditions and Functions,” in Apor, Behrends, et al., eds., The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships, 3–26.

8 Robert Kvaček, “The Rise and Fall of Democracy,” in Mikuláš Teich, Bohemia in History (Cambridge, 1998), 251.

9 For example, within the Castle chancellery, younger staffers frequently chafed against the conservative nationalism of political chief Josef Schieszl. Masaryk himself had to scold Schieszl in 1924 when Schieszl publicly denigrated the newly created, Castle-sponsored National Labor Party led by Jaroslav Stránský. Schieszl, “Nové strany” [New parties], Nová svoboda [New freedom], 1 October 1925, cited in Tomáš Dvořák, “Národní strana práce (1925–1930), II. Část” [The National Labor Party (1925–1930), part II], Střední Evropa [Central Europe] 77 (1998): 123. Also, the holdings for the interwar Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior, in the Czech National Archives (formerly the State Central Archives, or SÚA), contain a chronological roster of censored publications. On that roster, several times, even before the First Republic's 1938 demise, was Ferdinand Peroutka's Přítomnost [The presence], now regarded as one of the foremost Castle publications. See Národní Archiv (Prague), Presidium ministerstva vnitra.

10 On the Castle, see, for example, Karl Bosl, ed. Die Burg: Einflußreiche politische Kräfte um Masaryk und Beneš, 2 vols. (Munich, 1973–74) Antonín Klímek, Boj o Hrad [Battle for the Castle], vol.1, Hrad a Pětka, 1918–1926 [The Castle and the Pětka, 1918–1926] (Prague, 1996), and Boj o Hrad, vol. 2, Kdo po Masarykovi? 1926–1935 [Who after Masaryk? 1926–1935] (Prague, 1998) Jaroslav Pecháček, Masaryk, Beneš, Hrad: Masarykovy dopisy Benešovi [Masaryk, Beneš, The Castle: Masaryk's Letters to Beneš] (Prague, 1996). In English, see F. Gregory Campbell, “The Castle, Jaroslav Preiss, and the ΂Živnostenská Bank,” Bohemia: Jahrbuch des Collegium Carolinum 15 (1974): 231–53, and Andrea Orzoff, Battle for the Castle: National Myth and Propaganda in Czechoslovakia, 1914–1948 (Oxford, forthcoming).

11 Zbyněk Zeman, The Masaryks: The Making of Czechoslovakia (New York, 1976), 139.

A Listing of All the Musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra

This website, www.stokowski.org has two listings of musicians of the great Cleveland Orchestra:

- A listing of the Principal Musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra with short biographical notes and photographs. This listing is available by clicking on the webpage Cleveland Orchestra Principal Musicians.

- A listing of all the Musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra 1918-today. This listing is contained on this webpage, as shown below.

A Listing of the Musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra 1918 until Today

This is a listing of all musicians identified so far who were permanent, contracted members of the Cleveland Orchestra since its founding in 1918. Their name, instrument and dates of service, as well as titles are given. Where a musician played more than one instrument, a separate listing, with dates, is provided for that musician. I have also begun to add birth and death years, where known.

Sources for this information include 'Fanfare: Portraits of the Cleveland Orchestra' 17 and my personal files and updates, as well as Donald Rosenberg's fine book The Cleveland Orchestra Story, 'Second to None' 1 .

If you should have updates or corrections to the data listed below, please contact me at the email address given below. . (** note that in the 1919 photo above, the Cleveland Orchestra is performing in Grays Armory, but the Cleveland Orchestra had already moved most concerts to the Masonic Auditorium the month before this November, 1919 photo.)

Also, to read short biographies of the Principal musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra during its history since 1918, Click here to return to the Cleveland Orchestra Principal Musicians Page

All the Musicians of the Cleveland Orchestra 1918 - today


Franco was born on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol, Galicia. He was baptised thirteen days later at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Francisco for his paternal grandfather, Paulino for his godfather, Hermenegildo for his maternal grandmother and godmother, and Teódulo for the saint day of his birth.

His father was of Andalusian ancestry. [lower-alpha 2] After relocating to Galicia, the family was strongly involved in the Spanish Navy, and over the span of two centuries produced naval officers for six uninterrupted generations, down to Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado Araújo (22 November 1855 – 22 February 1942).

His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade (15 October 1865 – 28 February 1934) [24] and she was an upper middle-class Roman Catholic. His parents married in 1890. The young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás (Ferrol, 1891–1977) and Ramón, and his two sisters, María del Pilar (Ferrol, 1894 – Madrid, 1989), and María de la Paz (Ferrol, 1899 – Ferrol, 1903). The latter died in infancy. Nicolás was later a naval officer and diplomat who in time married María Isabel Pascual del Pobil y Ravello. Ramón was a pioneer aviator, a Freemason with originally leftist political leanings who was killed in an air accident on a military mission in 1938. María del Pilar married Alonso Jaráiz y Jeréz.

Table of Contents

Childhood and youth: Augsburg 1898 to 1917

Parents and social environment

Eugen Brecht, as the young Bertolt Brecht was called, grew up in secure economic and social circumstances. His father Berthold Friedrich Brecht , son of a lithographer in Achern , Baden , had no higher education: he attended elementary school and then completed a commercial apprenticeship. In 1893 he started as a clerk at Haindl'schen Papierfabrik in Augsburg , a prospering company that at that time had around 300 employees in Augsburg alone. There Berthold Friedrich Brecht rose quickly, in 1901 as authorized signatory and in 1917 as director of the commercial department. Brecht's mother Wilhelmine Friederike Sophie, née Brezing (1871–1920), came from the Upper Swabian town of Roßberg near Wolfegg and came from a small civil servant household (her father was station director at the Roßberg railway junction ).

From September 1900 the family, Berthold Friedrich and Sophie Brecht as well as Eugen and the younger brother Walter , lived in two apartments with a total of six rooms in the Augsburg Klaucke-Vorstadt, also known as the “ Bleich ” quarter. The apartment belonged to a four-house Haindl foundation , mainly for deserving workers and employees of the paper mill Berthold Friedrich Brecht's tasks included the administration of this foundation. The Brechts employed a maid . Sophie Brecht suffered from depression and breast cancer for years and died in 1920 of a relapse of her cancer. In my mother's song , Brecht writes: "I don't remember her face as it was when she wasn't in pain." Since 1910, the Brechts therefore had an additional housekeeper . Eugen had to vacate his room for this, but was given an attic apartment with its own entrance.

The father was Catholic , the mother Protestant . They had agreed that the children would be brought up in the Protestant faith, so that the young Eugen Brecht belonged to a minority in the predominantly Catholic Augsburg. From 1904 he attended elementary school in Augsburg, from 1908 the Augsburg Realgymnasium (today Peutinger-Gymnasium ) and regularly brought home good, if not very good, certificates. He received piano, violin and guitar lessons, but only the latter struck. At an early age he suffered from heart problems, which resulted in a number of spa stays It is unclear whether the complaints were organic or neurotic .

First publications

At the age of fifteen, Brecht and his friend Fritz Gehweyer published a school newspaper, The Harvest , in which he wrote the majority of the articles himself, some under foreign names, and also copied. He wrote poems, prose texts and even a one-act drama, The Bible . In the years that followed, Brecht continued to produce poems and drafts for dramas. After the beginning of the First World War in 1914, he managed to accommodate a series of (mostly patriotic) reports from the home front, poems, prose texts and reviews in local and regional media: the so-called "Augsburger Kriegsbriefe" (Augsburg War Letters) in the Munich-Augsburger Abendzeitung , other texts in the Augsburger Neuesten Nachrichten and in particular its literary supplement, Der Narrator . They were mostly drawn with Berthold Eugen, a combination of his first names.

In his texts, Brecht soon abandoned the patriotic glorification of the war, and production for the local newspapers declined. Because of an essay on the Horace verse Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori ("It is sweet and honorable to die for the fatherland") that Brecht wrote in 1915 and does not correspond to the expected pathos of death , he is said to have almost been expelled from high school. From 1916 onwards, he wrote poems that were added to the Bertolt Brecht's house postil in 1927 , which Brecht was also later to support. The first of them was the song of the Fort Donald railway troop , first published in July 1916 in the narrator and drawn "Bert Brecht". It was here that Brecht used the form of name under which he became known for the first time.

Friendships and love affairs

During the war years he gathered a circle of friends who wrote and sang songs with him and worked on publications. Caspar Neher ( Cas ), whom Brecht knew from school, remained a close associate as a graphic designer and, above all, a stage designer until Brecht's death The friendships with Georg Pfanzelt (whom Brecht immortalized as Orge in the house postil) and Hanns Otto Münsterer also proved to be lasting (with interruptions). Together with his friends (especially Ludwig Prestel and Lud ), Brecht not only drafted the lyrics, but also the melodies for songs and poems and then played them on the guitar. In this phase, two characteristics of Brecht's way of working became apparent: the collective work in a team, which, however, is clearly geared towards the central figure Brecht, and the very close connection with other arts with a view to realization, especially graphics / set design and music .

It was during this time that the young Brecht had his first love affairs. He courted the student Rosa Maria Amann, whose name later went into the title of one of his most famous poems ( Memory of Marie A. ). Soon, however, the love for Paula Banholzer came to the fore, which he called "Bi" (for bittersweet or "bittersweet", based on the model of the drama The Exchange by Paul Claudel , which is accused of exchanging partners). Even so, he continued to seek Amann and other young women whom he had eyeed - a trait that continued throughout his life.

In March 1917, Brecht announced for auxiliary military service and obtained the approval of a simplified Notabitur , which he successfully completed a 18-year-old high school. He did his job with paperwork and in a gardening shop. He was postponed from military service. In the summer he worked at Tegernsee as a private tutor for a classmate from a wealthy family then he began studying medicine in Munich.

On the way to becoming a professional writer and theater practitioner

Studies and military service

Formally, Brecht studied medicine and philosophy. However, he rarely attended medical lectures, but concentrated on a seminar by Artur Kutscher on contemporary literature. There he met the poet and dramatist Frank Wedekind, whom he admired, as well as Otto Zarek and Hanns Johst , and established a casual relationship with the medical student Hedda Kuhn, who appears in his psalms as "He". Among other things, the current novel Ambros Maria Baal by the expressionist Andreas Thom was dealt with in the seminar . This novel and Johst's Grabbe drama Der Einsame , which he saw in March 1918, inspired Brecht to draft his own drama under the title Baal , the first version of which was ready in June. Brecht's father had the company secretaries type a fair copy, which Brecht initially unsuccessfully sent to Kutscher, Lion Feuchtwanger , Jacob Geis and Alfred Kerr . It was during this time that some of Brecht's most famous poems were written, especially the legend of the dead soldier and Lucifer's evening song , later renamed Gegen Verführung .

In the first two semesters, with the support of his father, Brecht managed to get a postponement from military service in October 1918, however, he was called up as a military nurse in an Augsburg reserve hospital. At that time he wrote his song to the cavaliers of station D - the letter stands for dermatology , it was a station for venereal diseases - and with his circle of friends produced a book of songs on the guitar of Bert Brecht and his friends . After the November Revolution , Brecht was a member of the military council and thus the Augsburg workers 'and soldiers' council , but did not excel in any way. On January 9, 1919, he was able to finish his service again.

Determined networking

Brecht had maintained his love affair with Paula Banholzer during this time, and in January 1919 it turned out that the 17-year-old was pregnant by him. Banholzer's father did not believe in a marriage with the hitherto unsuccessful poet and sent her to the Allgäu village of Kimratshofen , where she gave birth to her son Frank on July 30, 1919. Brecht had been writing a new drama since January, Spartakus (later renamed Drums in the Night ). In February he went to see Lion Feuchtwanger to show him a first version of the play. The influential Feuchtwanger expressed himself very positively and became one of the most important and long-term supporters of the young Brecht.

Although Brecht had Feuchtwanger's support, there was initially neither a print nor a performance of one of his pieces, which he constantly reworked. In 1919 he also wrote a series of one-act plays, including Die Hochzeit (later titled: Die Kleinbürgerhochzeit ), which also remained unperformed. Since October 13, 1919, he has at least written the theater reviews for the USPD newspaper Der Volkswille in Augsburg, but the Augsburg theater encountered a few problems due to his polemics, which led to an insulting process . During his first trip to Berlin in February 1920, Brecht used his Munich acquaintances with Hedda Kuhn and the writer and journalist Frank Warschauer (in whose apartment on Eislebener Strasse he stayed both now and during his second stay in 1921/1922) to make new contacts tie. The recommendation to Hermann Kasack , at that time a lecturer at Kiepenheuer , with whom he negotiated about the Baal without any results , was particularly valuable .

After the Kapp Putsch , Brecht returned to Munich. Around December he met the singer Marianne Zoff as Augsburg's Volkswille theater critic and began an intense love affair with her without ending the relationship with Paula Banholzer. He got involved in violent arguments with Zoff's other lover Oscar Recht. Both Zoff and Banholzer became pregnant again by Brecht in 1921, but Zoff had a miscarriage, Banholzer possibly an abortion . In the meantime, Brecht was working on another piece, later entitled In the Thicket of Cities, and also on a number of film projects, all of which, however, could not be sold. At least he managed to get the pirate story Bargan abandons it in September 1921 in the nationally known magazine Der Neue Merkur .

Especially on a second trip to Berlin between November 1921 and April 1922, Brecht made determined acquaintances with influential people in Berlin's cultural life. He conducted parallel negotiations with Kiepenheuer-Verlag (via Hermann Kasack, with the result of a general contract and a provisional monthly pension), Verlag Erich Reiss (mediated by Klabund ) and Verlag Paul Cassirer , learned actors such as Alexander Granach , Heinrich George , Eugen Klöpfer and Werner Krauss know and bonded with the aspiring playwright Arnolt Bronnen in joint ventures on the cultural market. During this time he also changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt in order to create a distinguishing mark for the 'company' Arnolt Bronnen / Bertolt Brecht. A particularly important contact was to be the theater critic of the Berliner Börsen-Courier , Herbert Ihering , who entered since repeatedly publicly for Brecht. A first attempt at directing Bronnen's play Patermord had to be broken off due to violent arguments between Brecht and the actors. On Trude Hesterberg's Wilder stage he appeared as a singer to the guitar with his legend of the dead soldier , causing a scandal He made similar appearances as a 'songwriter', especially at semi-public meetings of the cultural scene. At the end of 1922, Brecht, who had overwhelmed himself, had to go to the Charité for three weeks with a kidney infection .

First successes

In the meantime it had actually succeeded in arranging the first premiere of a Brecht piece in Munich : Drumming in the Night with Otto Falckenberg at the Munich Kammerspiele. Brecht revised the text again in the summer, rehearsals began on August 29, 1922, the premiere took place on September 29, 1922 and was enthusiastically reviewed by Ihering. The following day, the Kammerspiele showed the revue Die Rote Zibebe by Brecht and Valentin in their midnight performance , including Brecht himself as "Klampfenbenke", Klabund, Joachim Ringelnatz (with Kuttel Daddeldu ), Valeska Gert , Karl Valentin and Liesl Karlstadt . Feuchtwanger published an article about Brecht in Das Tage-Buch , Baal was published by Kiepenheuer, the German Theater in Berlin arranged the performance of all Brecht dramas, and Ihering awarded him the Kleist Prize, endowed with 10,000 Reichsmarks . A real “breakout house” had broken out.

During the rehearsals of the drums it had already been found that Marianne Zoff was pregnant again. Brecht, who held a position as a dramaturge and director at the Münchner Kammerspiele from mid-October 1922 , and Marianne Zoff married on November 3, 1922 in Munich. In mid-November, however, he traveled back to Berlin to take part in the rehearsals for the Berlin premiere of drums that night , which took place on December 20th. Before the turn of the year, the first print of the piece was published by Drei Masken Verlag , with the legend of the dead soldier in the appendix. In addition, in March 1923, Brecht finished the grotesque film Mysteries of a Hairdressing Salon together with Erich Engel and Karl Valentin . On March 12, 1923, their daughter Hanne was born in Munich .

In the Thicket of Cities , a version revised at short notice by Brecht, entitled In the Thicket, premiered on May 9, 1923 at the Munich Residenztheater . Caspar Neher was responsible for the set for the first time. While Ihering was again composing hymns of praise, the Nazis were already disturbing the second performance of the piece with stink bombs. The piece was canceled after six performances "because of the opposition in the audience".

Director Brecht

In the following months Brecht made another attempt as a director in Berlin, again together with Bronnen, namely for the bustling theater maker Jo Lherman . He radically shortened the mystery play Pastor Ephraim Magnus by Kleist Prize winner Hans Henny Jahnn under chaotic circumstances and constant quarrels with the actors from seven to two hours, but the premiere on August 23, 1923 was not a success, especially since Lherman's checks turned out to be uncovered. During this time, Brecht met the actress Helene Weigel and began a relationship with her.

From the end of 1923, Brecht concentrated on directing the Münchner Kammerspiele. Together with Lion Feuchtwanger as well as Bernhard Reich and Asja Lacis he arranged an Elizabethan piece by Christopher Marlowe , Edward II , under the title Life of Edward II of England . It was the first directorial work that Brecht was able to successfully complete after John Fuegi, this is where he developed his personal directorial style for the first time, especially since he was able to work with Neher as a set designer. After numerous delays, the edited piece premiered on March 19, 1924 In June the first print of the arrangement with etchings by Neher was published by Kiepenheuer, under Brecht's name, but with the note on page 2: "I wrote this piece with Lion Feuchtwanger." Baal had already been premiered on December 8, 1923 in Leipzig. Brecht had taken part in the rehearsals and made few friends in the process. The play was immediately canceled at the instigation of the Leipzig city council.

In the spring of 1924 Helene Weigel von Brecht was pregnant. Without telling his wife Marianne anything about it, or at all about this affair, Brecht went on vacation with Marianne and Hanne to Capri in April . He also used the opportunity to meet Neher, Reich and Lacis - and to make a flying visit to Florence , where he met Helene Weigel. In June, Brecht first returned to Berlin to advance his business with the Kiepenheuer Verlag. The collection of poems Hauspostille , which he owed Kiepenheuer for almost two years, he edited together with Hermann Kasack, but afterwards again did not send a finished text, but kept the publisher off. At that time there was still talk of Marianne Brecht moving to Berlin (Kiepenheuer had already started looking for an apartment for her) - but Brecht had already reached an agreement with Helene Weigel that he could take over her attic apartment in Berlin . In September 1924 he finally moved to Berlin.

Creative period before exile

He divorced Marianne three years later and married Helene Weigel on April 10, 1929, who gave birth to their second child Barbara on October 28, 1930.

Brecht developed into a staunch communist in the second half of the 1920s and from then on pursued political goals with his works such as the play Mann ist Mann (premiere 1926). But he never joined the KPD . Brecht's reception of Marxism was influenced by both undogmatic and non-party Marxists such as Karl Korsch , Fritz Sternberg and Ernst Bloch, as well as by the official KPD line. From 1926, the formation of his epic theater took place parallel to the development of his political thought. Numerous theater reviews that he wrote in recent years began his criticism of bourgeois German theater and the art of acting. The notes on the opera Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny , which Brecht wrote together with Peter Suhrkamp in 1930, are an important theatrical theoretical essay . The collaboration with Kurt Weill in several music-dramatic works was also essential for the development of the epic theater.

Brecht was not only active in the theater, but also in other fields, across all genres and genres. He wrote poems, songs, short stories, novels, short stories and radio plays for the radio. With his works, Brecht wanted to make social structures transparent, especially with regard to their changeability. For him, literary texts had to have a “use value”. He described this in detail in his 1927 Short Report on 400 (Four Hundred) Young Poets .

In collaboration with Kurt Weill, a number of so-called teaching pieces with avant-garde music were created, for example the piece Lindberghflug 1929, the school opera Der Jasager (1930), which he revised after discussions with students from the Karl Marx School (Berlin-Neukölln) and the alternative Der Neinsager added, as well as The measure (also 1930). Bertolt Brecht's collection of poems, published in 1927, consisted of texts that were largely written earlier. In 1928 Brecht celebrated one of the greatest theatrical successes of the Weimar Republic with his Threepenny Opera , set to music by Kurt Weill and premiered on August 31st. In the same year Brecht met Hanns Eisler , who now became the most important composer of his pieces and songs. The acquaintance grew into a close friendship and one of the most important poet-musician partnerships of the 20th century.

Life in exile

In 1930 the National Socialists began to vehemently disrupt Brecht's performances. At the beginning of 1933 a performance of The Measure was interrupted by the police. The organizers were charged with high treason. On February 28 - one day after the Reichstag fire - Brecht left Berlin with his family and friends and fled abroad. His first exile stations were in Prague, Vienna, Zurich, in the early summer of 1933 Carona with Kurt Kläber and Lisa Tetzner and Paris. At the invitation of the writer Karin Michaëlis , Helene Weigel traveled with the children to Denmark on the small island of Thurø near Svendborg . In April 1933, Brecht was on the “black list” drawn up by Wolfgang Herrmann that is why his books were burned by the National Socialists on May 10, 1933 , and all of his works were banned the next day. Brecht was stripped of his German citizenship in 1935 .

In 1933, Brecht set up the DAD agency, the “German Author Service”, in Paris. This was intended to give emigrated writers, in particular his co-author and lover Margarete Steffin , opportunities for publication. Together with Kurt Weill , Brecht developed his first exile piece, the ballet The Seven Deadly Sins , which premiered in July 1933 at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. Shortly afterwards, Brecht bought a house in Svendborg (Denmark) and spent the next five years there with his family. In 1938 the life of Galileo originated . In addition to dramas, Brecht also wrote articles for several émigré magazines in Prague, Paris and Amsterdam. In 1939 he left Denmark, lived in a farmhouse in Lidingö near Stockholm for a year and in April 1940 in Helsinki. During the summer stay in Marlebäck in 1940 , where the family had been invited by the Finnish writer Hella Wuolijoki , Brecht wrote the play Mr. Puntila and his servant Matti , based on a text by Wuolijoki , which was only premiered on June 5, 1948 in Zurich. In the summer of 1940 he began working with Wuolijoki on the unfinished piece Die Judith by Shimoda based on a template by Yuzo Yamamoto.

It was not until May 1941 that Brecht received his entry visa to the USA and was able to travel with his family by ship to Santa Monica in California via Moscow and Vladivostok . He lived there for five years, from 1942 to 1947, at 1063 26th Street, just outside Hollywood . He envisioned working as a successful screenwriter in the film business but this did not happen at first because of his aversion to the USA and its isolation. He had hardly any opportunities for literary or political work and described himself in view of the disinterest of the Americans as a "teacher without students". With Charles Laughton , who later played the lead role in Brecht's only theater work in American exile, he translated his play The Life of Galileo , which premiered in July 1947 at the Coronet Theater in Beverly Hills . The original version was premiered on September 9, 1943 in the Schauspielhaus Zurich .

After the USA entered the war, Brecht had to register as an " enemy alien " in 1942 and was monitored by the FBI. Suspected of being a member of a communist party, he was questioned by the Committee on Un-American Activities on October 30, 1947 . When asked whether he had ever been a member of the Communist Party or was still present, Brecht answered “no” and added that he was also not a member of a Communist Party in Germany. A day later he traveled to Paris and shortly afterwards on November 5th to Zurich. He stayed there for a year, since Switzerland was the only country for which he was granted a residence permit He was forbidden from entering West Germany - the American zone of occupation. In February 1948, Brecht's version of Antigone des Sophocles was premiered in the Chur City Theater.

Return to Berlin

Sounding out the situation

Shortly after the war, Brecht was urged by friends to come back to Germany and stage his plays himself. However, he waited in Zurich and sounded out the situation. When several theaters were reopened in the Soviet occupation zone in 1948 and the “German Theater” and the Volksbühne resumed work in Berlin , he traveled from Zurich via Prague to Berlin in October 1948 at the invitation of the Kulturbund for the democratic renewal of Germany . He was still prohibited from entering the western occupied areas of Germany. When he arrived in East Berlin, he quickly made contact with important artists and functionaries. The fact that Alexander Dymschitz, an admirer of Brecht's works, sat in the Soviet military administration should also prove to be beneficial for him. The reunion with Jacob Walcher , whose political judgment Brecht always trusted to a particular degree, was a great pleasure for Brecht, as he had now found the expert with whom he could discuss the political constellations. Brecht initially abstained from making political statements in public. As early as January, Brecht in Switzerland expressed his skepticism about developments in Germany.

“It is clear from everything that Germany has not yet grasped its crisis. The daily grief, the lack of everything, the circular movement of all processes, keep the criticism in the symptomatic. Carry on is the watchword. It is postponed and it is suppressed. Everything fears tearing, without which building is impossible. "

Although Brecht was not granted any far-reaching privileges during his stay in Berlin, negotiations did take place with publishers. After some hesitation, he arranged his publishing affairs: The experiments and the collected works were to be published by Peter Suhrkamp , the GDR-Aufbau Verlag was also to receive a license for them, and the rights for the stage works remained with Reiss-Verlag in Basel. The Aufbau-Verlag became interested in Brecht's poetry at an early stage.

Brecht found it important to regain a foothold in the theater business. He immediately accepted an offer by Wolfgang Langhoff to stage his own plays at the Deutsches Theater. This also achieved an important goal of his Berlin friends, to tie the artist to a Berlin theater. Together with Erich Engel , Brecht staged the play Mother Courage and Her Children . The premiere on January 11, 1949 was an extraordinary success for Brecht, Engel and the leading actress Weigel, especially because of Brecht's theory of epic theater. On the one hand, the production was praised in the press, on the other hand, later conflicts with the cultural officials became apparent. Terms such as “decadence alien to the people”, still tagged with question marks, appeared in public, apparently in the expectation that the formalism debate of Zhdanov in the USSR in 1948 would inevitably reach the arts and culture of the GDR .

In February 1949, Brecht returned briefly to Zurich to apply for a permanent residence permit, as Berlin was not immediately his first choice. However, the approval was denied. Brecht also tried to win actors and directors for his upcoming work in Berlin. At the same time he conducted extensive studies on the history of the Paris Commune . The text of the play Die Tage der Commune (a revision of Nordahl Grieg's Die Niederlage ) was ready in April 1949, but Brecht was dissatisfied with what had been achieved and initially postponed the production. When he finally left Zurich on May 4, 1949, he had signed contracts with Therese Giehse , Benno Besson and Teo Otto , among others . Previously, Brecht, who had become a stateless person through expatriation in 1935 , with the intention of creating a version of Jedermann , had approached the director of the Salzburg Festival Gottfried von Eine in April 1949 and at the same time pointed out the original nationality of his wife Helene Weigel the Austrian citizenship requests. In August 1949 he moved to one in Salzburg and began working on Jedermann. At the intercession of one and numerous Austrian cultural workers who expected an enrichment of the local cultural life, the Salzburg provincial government granted Brecht and Weigel the desired citizenship on April 12, 1950. In the GDR, the authorities from then on listed Brecht and Weigel as German and Austrian citizens. In Austria, Brecht met with criticism the following year. He left the country in 1950 without ending Jedermann . As the originator of naturalization, one lost his post at the Salzburg Festival.

A separate ensemble

While Brecht was in Switzerland, Helene Weigel had arranged everything necessary to be able to found Brecht's own ensemble. Wilhelm Pieck , Otto Grotewohl and, on the part of SMAD, Alexander Dymschitz had supported the project to the best of their ability. On April 29, 1949, the responsible government agency was informed of the decision by the SED Politburo to found a “Helene Weigel Ensemble” with the stipulation that the game would start on September 1, 1949. The appointment of Helene Weigel as ensemble leader only had advantages for Brecht. On the one hand, he did not have to deal with the bureaucracy of the theater business, but on the other hand he could also be sure that Weigel would not force him to compromise through his own ambition. In the first few years, the concept of working together between talented actors and directors from the exile scene and young talents from Germany seemed to work, but the Cold War and the debate about Brecht's epic theater soon had an impact in this area too. Agreements could not be kept, artists such as Peter Lorre expected by Brecht did not come to Berlin. Other artists, such as Teo Otto, who were confronted with allegations of formalism, ended the collaboration.

Theater work in the GDR

When a new academy of the arts was to be brought into being with the founding of the GDR in 1949 , Brecht tried to bring his ideas into play: “In any case, our academy should be productive and not just representative.” He also brought up the subject of “master students " into the conversation. In the now renamed Berliner Ensemble , Brecht often and happily surrounded himself with students such as Benno Besson , Peter Palitzsch , Carl Weber and Egon Monk . At the beginning of 1950 Brecht turned to the play Der Hofmeister by the “Sturm und Drang” poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz , for which he felt great sympathy throughout his life. The premiere of his adaptation took place on April 15, 1950, it was the greatest success of the ensemble during Brecht's lifetime, and it was here that the public saw him for the first time as a director.

In the early 1950s have been taken by the SED important policy decisions, as was the construction of socialism as the fundamental duty [. ] become . At the same time, the debate about formalism in art became more acute. Brecht acted cautiously here and did not get involved in a theoretical discussion. He rather took the path of small steps and prepared his audience for the “didactic theater” he wanted with the new production of Die Mutter in 1950/1951. In the rather admonishing and benevolent criticism that began with this staging, Brecht's special role that he enjoyed in the GDR art world became clear once again. Other artists like Paul Dessau felt the formalism allegations of the functionaries much more clearly. However, Brecht's libretto for the opera The Condemnation of Lucullus , whose “test performance” took place on March 17, 1951 under the title The Interrogation of Lucullus , also got into the dispute. A failure should apparently be organized through the targeted allocation of cards by the Ministry of National Education. The plan failed completely. In the following discussions about the play, in which the highest state officials took part, Brecht acted skillfully, always looking for a compromise. On October 7, 1951, Brecht received the national prize of the GDR first class. With his works, Brecht had helped “to lead the struggle for peace and progress and for a happy future for mankind”. In 1952 he had a production of Urfaust with young actors in Potsdam - outside of Berlin - a practice that he practiced even more often. On July 2, 1952, Brecht and Helene Weigel moved into a house in Buckow . Not without pride he declared: "I now belong to a new class - the tenants." ()

Brecht's reactions to June 17, 1953

When there were mass protests by GDR workers in Berlin on June 17, 1953 , on the same day Brecht expressed his “solidarity with the Socialist Unity Party of Germany” in a concise letter to Walter Ulbricht , but at the same time formulated the expectation of a “debate with the masses on the pace of socialist construction ”. On the same day, Brecht sent further short solidarity addresses to Wladimir Semjonow ("unbreakable friendship with the Soviet Union") and to Otto Grotewohl and Gustav Just with the offer of contributing to the current radio program.

Brecht analyzed the situation at the same time in an unpublished typescript as follows: “The demonstrations of June 17th showed the dissatisfaction of a considerable part of the Berlin working class with a number of unsuccessful economic measures. Organized fascist elements tried to abuse this discontent for their bloody ends. For several hours Berlin was on the brink of a Third World War . It is only thanks to the rapid and safe intervention of Soviet troops that these attempts were foiled. It was evident that the intervention of the Soviet troops was by no means directed against the workers' demonstrations. It was apparently directed exclusively against attempts to ignite a new world fire. It is now up to each individual to help the government eradicate the mistakes that have created discontent and threaten our undoubtedly great social achievements. "

Brecht saw the cause of the strikes in the government's attempt to "increase production" by raising labor standards without adequate consideration. The artists were functionalized as propagandists for this project: “The artists were given a high standard of living and the workers were promised it.” Brecht saw a real change in the sphere of production as an alternative.

Brecht had closed his letter to Ulbricht with an address of solidarity for the party, which for some biographers was a mere polite phrase. The government published in Neues Deutschland on June 21, 1953, however, only its affiliation with the party, which permanently discredited Brecht. Brecht tried to correct the impression made by the published part of the letter. Under the heading For Fascists There Can Be No Mercy , Brecht, along with other authors, took a position in the New Germany of June 23, 1953. In addition to a legitimizing introduction, which cited the abuse of the demonstrations "for warlike purposes", he again called for a "big debate" with the workers "who demonstrated with justified dissatisfaction". In October 1953, Brecht tried to distribute the complete letter to Ulbricht through journalists.

“At that time a world collapsed for Brecht. He was shocked and horrified. Eyewitnesses report that they saw him downright helpless at the time For a long time he carried a copy of the fateful letter with him and showed it to friends and acquaintances to justify himself. But it was too late. Suddenly the West German theaters, the most loyal ones he had next to his own, removed his plays from the repertoire, and it took a long time for this boycott to loosen up again. "

Ronald Gray found in Brecht's behavior the figure of Galileo Galilei , whom Brecht himself had designed in literary terms: the chameleon-like verbal adaptation to the regime enabled him to pursue his real interests. Walter Muschg reflected on Brecht's unclear behavior with reference to the double life of the Brecht character Shen-Te from The Good Man of Sezuan :

“The one who remained free from the cowardice and stupidity of the time led the double life represented by 'The Good Man of Sezuan' and tainted himself with concessions in order to be able to keep himself up. It did not help him that the verses he provided for official occasions, intentionally or not, were astonishingly bad Schweyk's cunning in dealing with the dictatorship could not calm him down. He had to feel like a ghost of himself because, too proud to flee, he persevered under the flag that had long since become questionable to him. Only a better end to the war could have saved him from this predicament. He wasn't a traitor, but a prisoner. He became an outsider again, his face took on a corpse-like appearance. The worst abuse of his person was the embezzlement of his critical position on the suppression of the Berlin June uprising of 1953, of which the public only got to see the binding final formula. After his early death, which is probably related to the grief over it, poems came to light that show what he suffered. "

In his Brecht biography Brecht & Co. , John Fuegi analyzes Brecht's reactions differently . Brecht himself was under pressure during this time and fought to take over the theater on Schiffbauerdamm . His reference to CIA provocateurs shows his fundamental misinterpretation of the situation. "The GDR government had lost contact with the workers, and that also applied to Brecht." In addition to the letter cited above, Brecht had also sent further solidarity addresses to Vladimir Semjonow and Otto Grotewohl. Brecht also did not react to protests by a worker in the Berliner Ensemble against the low wages of around 350 marks net, although he had received a salary of 3000 marks at the theater alone.

In the poetic reflection of the events in July / August 1953, Brecht took a clearly distant attitude towards the GDR government, which he articulated in the Buckower Elegies in the poem The Solution, among other things .

After the June 17th uprising
Let the secretary of the Writers' Union
Hand out leaflets in Stalinallee
On which it was read that the people
I forfeited the government's trust
And only by doing double the work
Could recapture. If it were there
Not easier, the government
Dissolved the people and
Chose another?

The kind of discussion Brecht had wished for did not materialize he withdrew from the fruitless debates that followed. From July to September 1953, Brecht worked mainly in Buckow on the poems of the Buckower Elegies and on the play Turandot or the Congress of the White Washer . During this time, Brecht also experienced several personal crises in connection with his constantly changing love affairs. Helene Weigel temporarily moved alone to Reinhardstrasse 1, Brecht in a backyard building at Chausseestrasse 125. His long-time loyal companion Ruth Berlau was now increasingly a burden for Brecht, especially since she only carried out her work in the ensemble sporadically.

The last few years

In January 1954 the Ministry of Culture of the GDR was founded, Johannes R. Becher was appointed minister and Brecht was appointed to the artistic advisory board. The old administrative structures were dissolved. This was supposed to finally eliminate the ubiquitous tension between the artists and the state officials. The concept of formalism disappeared from the debates. Brecht welcomed the changes and called on his fellow artists to take advantage of the new opportunities. On March 19, 1954, Brecht and his staff opened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with an adaptation of Molière's Don Juan . Against the background of the ever worsening East-West confrontation, Brecht took part in discussion evenings in West Berlin in 1955 and published his war primer . On December 21, 1954, Brecht was awarded the International Stalin Peace Prize, which was presented to him on May 25, 1955 in the Moscow Kremlin. Brecht continued to have ideas and plans for new pieces, which he increasingly delegated to his staff. In June 1954, Brecht was appointed Vice President of the German Academy of the Arts. Brecht also did a huge amount of work in the last years of his life: two productions per year as a director, participation in almost all productions by other directors of the Berliner Ensemble as well as all kinds of literary work. With two guest performances, in 1954 with Mother Courage and in 1955 with The Caucasian Chalk Circle in Paris , Brecht's ensemble has now made its international breakthrough. The triumphant success signaled to every theater official: Brecht can be staged without taking a risk.

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